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American Memory: Upper Midwest

Library of Congress American Memory Collection: books on the Upper Midwest
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“Three score years and ten,” life-long memories of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and other parts of the West.
Charlotte Ouisconsin Van Cleve (1819-1907) was the daughter of a U.S. Army officer, one of the first group of soldiers assigned to establish a fort in what was then known to whites as the Northwest. This was Fort Snelling, situated at the mouth of the St. Peter's [Minnesota] river in territory which eventually became the state of Minnesota. Van Cleve's book is a memoir of life spent with the military first as the daughter of a military officer, Major Nathan Clark, and later as the wife of another officer, Horatio Phillips Van Cleve, who served in the Union Army with the Second Minnesota Infantry and rose to the rank of General. Van Cleve's book emphasizes the early years of Fort Snelling. She recalls her childhood memories of life at the fort: the rudimentary schooling she received there, her encounters with Indians, the excitement of communications with the East, and all the rigors associated with frontier life. Van Cleve met her husband at Fort Winnebago, where he and her father were both stationed. Their assignments provided many opportunities to travel, and she visited St. Louis, Cincinnati, Kentucky, and Nashville. (English) (search this work)

An address on the climate, soil, resourses, development, commerce and future of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, delivered in ... 1861, by Alex. Campbell, of Marquette.
Alexander Campbell, a state representative from Marquette, presented this address on February 6, 1861 to the Michigan State Legislature, which resolved that 5,000 copies of it be printed and distributed. Campbell extols the resources and development prospects of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and attempts to balance prevailing assumptions about its frigid climate and long winters with positive descriptions of its dry, clean air and therapeutic value for invalids, particularly during the summer months. Among the area's natural advantages, Campbell cites natural harbors, abundant fisheries, mineral wealth (especially iron and copper), lumber (vast stands of hardwood timber), and agricultural potential. Though the winter air might be too bracing for those suffering from tuberculosis, Campbell believes that it virtually eliminates the feverish colds and barking coughs of damper, more changeable climates. He argues, however, that highways and ports must be developed to improve transportation and export of the region's products. (English) (search this work)

Along the bowstring or south shore of Lake Superior.
This amply-illustrated promotional guidebook, issued by the General Passenger Department of the Duluth South Shore & Atlantic Railway, describes in great detail the sights and recreational opportunities afforded visitors along Lake Superior's South Shore. The author follows the route from Sault Ste. Marie west to Duluth, including Marquette, Presque Isle and Macinac as well as other major stopover points, providing much local and geological history along the way. In words and pictures, the book depicts picturesque landmarks and scenic landscapes, mining, manufacturing, logging operations, fishing, hunting, and other wilderness activities, with some attention to the region's Indian groups. (English) (search this work)

Among the Wolverines: a series of letters on the resources, growth and business of the principal towns and cities of Michigan.
This pamphlet brings together a series of letters originally published in theChicago Price Current under the pseudonym Massabesic. They chronicle the writer's travels through Michigan's towns and cities by the Michigan Central Railroad as well as by water transportation and coach. Schooley emphasizes the growth and financial development of these burgeoning communities in the late 1860s. He discusses each town's local attractions, newspapers, educational and religious facilities, fiscal health, sources of wealth, retailing and distribution of goods, and agricultural and industrial production; however, he does not always provide the same amount of information for every community. Schooley also includes "An Essay on the Credit System," which analyzes the pitfalls of extending credit and buying "on time,"and an essay on the "Commercial Independence of the Northwest," which encourages the manufacture and distribution of the Upper Midwest's finished products through Chicago. (English) (search this work)

Autobiographical notes. (English) (search this work)

The autobiography of David Ward.
This privately-printed narrative, written by a self-made millionaire for his descendants, provides a personal mirror of Michigan's development during the nineteenth century. Born in 1822 in Essex County, New York, Ward moved with his family in 1836 to a farm on the St. Clair River near Newport, Michigan, and spent the next thirteen years working at a variety of jobs while recovering from respiratory ailments. Trained by his father as a surveyor, he used his skill to benefit himself and others, laying claims to the best stands of Michigan pine as soon as they became available. By the late 1850s, he had run his own lumbering operation in Sumner township on the Pine River (where he served as town supervisor), and set up residence in Saginaw with his wife, Elizabeth Perkins Ward, and their children. In 1863, when his vigorous prosecution of "log thieves" caused his children to be harassed, the family moved to a farm at Orchard Lake (Oakland County), near Pontiac, and lived there year-round until business responsibilities obliged them to winter in Detroit. From this new base, Ward began lumbering on the Tobacco and Chippewa rivers and, later, the Manistee. He expanded his forest holdings in Wisconsin as well as the Upper Peninsula and served for two years as president of the First National Bank of Pontiac. During the 1870s and 1880s, Ward traveled extensively, describing his impressions of West Coast forests, and journeying to the Southern Appalachian region where he purchased land containing forests and coal and iron deposits. He also purchased extensive stands of California redwood. In his later years, he continued to make trips into the woods and actively supervised such operations as grading railroad beds for lumber transport. Throughout his career, Ward had to contend with sharp business practices and unscrupulous associates--some within his family. It seems that he wrote this autobiography in part as a warning and as a compendium of good advice. (English) (search this work)

Autobiography of Erastus O. Haven, D.D., LL.D., one of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Erastus O. Haven (1820-1881) was a minister and leader of the Methodist Episcopal Church during a vigorous period of its growth and development. The child of a Methodist minister and farmer, he was born in Boston and spent most of his childhood in Massachusetts. Upon graduating from Wesleyan University, Haven established a life-long pattern of combining the ministry with teaching. This eventually led him to assume the presidencies of the University of Michigan and Northwestern University as well as the chancellorship of Syracuse University. Haven was deeply interested in educational issues affecting students at all levels and in helping to develop a strong Methodist presence among institutions of higher learning. His presidency at the University of Michigan, along with an earlier four-year stint there as a Latin professor, forced him to deal with the specific problems of a secular state university. Among the topics he discusses during the Michigan years are hazing, secret societies, fiscal issues and institutional administration. In midlife, Haven left his initial position at Michigan to become editor of Zion's Herald, a Methodist newspaper that gave him a voice in the Church's major controversies over slavery, church polity, and temperance. Later, he resigned the presidency of Northwestern University to become Secretary of the Board of Education for the Methodist Episcopal Church. Haven also served two terms in the Massachusetts Senate and was residing as a bishop in San Francisco when he died, leaving unfinished this autobiography, completed from his writings by the editor. (English) (search this work)

The bark covered house, or Back in the woods again; being a graphic and thrilling description of real pioneer life in the wilderness of Michigan ... By Willian Nowlin, esq.
This first-person narrative of a pioneer boyhood is intended as a tribute to the author's parents, who emigrated to Dearborn, Michigan, from Putnam County, New York in 1834. William Nowlin describes his father's frustration with subsistence on a small, debt-ridden fruit farm and his mother's anguish at leaving her friends, church, and relatives. He recounts the family's adventurous journey on the Erie Canal, the dangers of a public house in Buffalo, the perils of their steamship voyage across Lake Erie during a storm, and the trials of establishing a new home. Wishing to memorialize the challenges of converting wilderness into what he sees as a prosperous and civilized community, Nowlin describes building roads, clearing the land, building a home, fishing and hunting, handling cattle, and warding off mosquitoes, snakes, and wild animals, all in careful detail. He remembers uneasy relations between the white community and Native Americans, and discusses the social, legal, and moral complexities of dealing with the fugitive slaves and free African Americans who flowed back and forth across the Canadian border in search of freedom or job opportunities. Nowlin is conscious of the impact of modern technology, especially the railroads, and discusses both what was raised on the family farm and where and how it was marketed. He describes his father's long-range strategies to enhance the family's material welfare, and shows how family members collaborated as an economic unit. (English) (search this work)

Between the iron and the pine; a biography of a pioneer family and a pioneer town.
Lewis Reimann was the son of German immigrants who ran a boarding- house for miners and loggers in the Iron River district of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. This book consists of the author's recollections with anecdotes and historical commentary about the region. Reimann conveys a sense of the occupational lifestyles and multiple ethnicities of Iron River's inhabitants and deals in some detail with its folklore, material culture, foodways, and memorable local characters. He devotes a special chapter to Carrie Jacobs Bond, the genteel doctor's wife who left the area after her husband died and became a noted composer of songs. (English) (search this work)

A canoe voyage up the Minnay Sotor; with an account of the lead and copper deposits in Wisconsin; of the gold region in the Cherokee country; and sketches of popular manners; &c. &c. &c. Volume 2.By G.W. Featherstonhaugh.
This detailed travelogue, the concluding part of a two-volume work written primarily for a British readership, discusses the United States' geological resources and offers critical observations about the manners and customs of its different peoples. It was written over a decade after the author explored St. Peter's River--the "Minnay Sotor" of the book's title--in 1835, and draws upon the journals he kept along the way. A Canoe Voyage (volume 2) deals with Featherstonhaugh's return journey to the east coast. His route, interrupted by many detours and excursions through what is now the state of Wisconsin, took him from Fort Snelling and Galena to St. Louis and its environs. Traveling by steamer along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers to Paducah, Kentucky, Featherstonhaugh then journeyed down the Tennessee River to Tuscumbia, where he caught a train to Decatur. From this point, he journeyed by steamer, stage, and dugout canoe, to areas described as "Cherokee country," then onward to Georgia, the Carolinas,Virginia, and Washington, D.C, his ultimate destination. In this volume, Featherstonhaugh inveighs against fraudulent land speculators, slavery, the treatment of the Cherokee, and the bad manners of fellow travelers. He found much to admire in the beauty of the Southern Appalachians and the hospitality of John C. Calhoun, the celebrated Southern statesman. (English) (search this work)

A canoe voyage up the Minnay Sotor; with an account of the lead and copper deposits in Wisconsin; of the gold region in the Cherokee country; and skethes of popular manners; &c. &c. &c. Volume 1. By G. W. Featherstonhaugh.
This detailed travelogue, the first part of a two-volume work written primarily for a British readership, discusses the United States' geological resources and offers critical observations about the manners and customs of its different peoples. It was written more than a decade after the author explored St. Peter's River--the "Minnay Sotor" of the book's title-- in 1835, and draws upon the journals he kept along the way. A Canoe Voyage (volume 1) deals with the first part of Featherstonhaugh's trip. He set forth from Georgetown, in Washington, D.C., along the canal paralleling the Potomac River. He then continued along the Allegheny ridges through western Maryland, over to Pittsburgh, and, after stopping at the Rappite community of Economy in Ohio and at Ravenna, made his way to Cleveland, where he journeyed by steam and sail to Detroit, Ft. Gratiot, Mackinac, and Green Bay. At Green Bay, he obtained supplies and voyageurs for an expedition into areas less familiar to Americans of European ancestry. He paddled by canoe up the Fox River to Fort Winnebago, portaged over to the Wisconsin River, changed to a north by northwest course on the Mississippi to Prairie du Chien, and paused at both Lake Pepin and Fort Snelling. At Fort Snelling, Featherstonhaugh proceeded up the Minnesota River, his major objective, via the Makotah River and Lac Qui Parle, until he reached the Minnesota's source on Côteau du Prairie. He then returned to Fort Snelling by way of Big Stone Lake. Much of his account is filled with the author's opinions about the voyageurs and various Native American groups such as the Winnebago, the Ojibway [Chippewa], the Menominee, and the Sioux [Dakota]. (English) (search this work)

Canoeing with the Cree, by Arnold E. Sevareid.
This is the narrative of a canoe trip by renowned news commentator Eric Sevareid (1912-1992). After graduating from Minneapolis High School, he embarked with his classmate, Walt Port, on a journey that would take them up the Minnesota River to Big Stone Lake and from there to the Red River of the North and Lake Winnipeg. They paddled along the eastern shore of Lake Winnipeg to Norway House and then through five hundred miles of wilderness to York Factory, the historic trading center at Hudson Bay. They succeeded in becoming the first Americans on record to complete the route, which was over 2,250 miles long and required an entire summer, and their regular dispatches were published by the Minneapolis Star. Though aided initially by conveniences available at towns and settlements along the river banks, their route became progressively wilder and more challenging. During the last leg of the trip, when they found themselves ill-equipped to endure the climate, scarcity of food, and unanticipated hazards, they depended heavily on assistance from traders and the Cree, of whom Sevareid sometimes speaks disparagingly. The book focuses on adventure and personal experience rather than natural description or ethnographic information. Severeid himself viewed his journey as a rite of passage from adolescence into manhood. (English) (search this work)

Captured by the Indians; reminiscences of pioneer life in Minnesota.
This book is an account of Minnie Buce Carrigan's captivity among the Sioux after the 1862 uprising and her subsequent experience as an orphan. Carrigan emigrated with her German parents to Fox Lake, Wisconsin in 1858. Two years later they helped to establish a German settlement at Middle Creek in Renville County, Minnesota, where they lived in relative comfort and peace among the Sioux [Dakota]. By 1862, the numbers of settlers had grown exponentially, and their Sioux neighbors began to display signs of hostility. On August 18, 1862, when Carrigan was only about seven years of age, her parents and two of her siblings were killed during the Sioux uprising. Carrigan was taken captive with a brother and sister and spent ten weeks among the Sioux before the U.S. army compelled the return of all captives. Several other survivors, Emanuel Reyff, J.G. Lane, Mrs. Inefeldt, and Minnie Krieger, relate their own experiences in a final section of the book. (English) (search this work)

A child of the sea and life among the Mormons.
This is the vivid memoir of a mid-nineteenth-century girlhood spent mostly on the islands of Lake Michigan and the onshore communities of Manistique, Charlevoix, Traverse City, and Little Traverse (now Harbor Springs), written by a woman who grew up to be a lighthouse keeper on Beaver Island and in Little Traverse. Williams was brought up Catholic by a French-speaking mother and an English-speaking father who was a ship's carpenter for entrepreneurs engaged in the mercantile trade to and from these rapidly developing settlements. Williams depicts cordial, even intimate, relationships between her family and the Indians who lived nearby, and describes the courtship and arranged marriage of an Ottawa chief's daughter who lived with her family for an extended period. The major portion of the book, however, is devoted to her eye-witness recollections of James Jesse Strang's short-lived dissident Mormon monarchy on Beaver Island, amplified by stories she heard from disillusioned followers. Strang was expelled from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints after disputing Brigham Young's right to succeed Joseph Smith. Eventually he and his own loyal followers settled on Beaver Island and attracted a stream of new converts; at their demographic peak, the "Strangites" numbered 5,000 strong. Strang saw himself as a prophet and believed the rules he tried to establish were in accord with divine revelations. Williams describes the mounting tensions between Strang's followers and the "gentile" residents who fled the island as Strang's influence grew; incidents connected with Strang's assassination by two former followers; and the ensuing exodus of most Strangites from Beaver Island. She later moved back there with her family, as did many of the earlier inhabitants. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 1.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It is chronologically indexed, and reprints materials by some of Minnesota territory's leading residents, including Henry Hastings Sibley, Alexander Ramsay, and William J. Snelling, originally published in five pamphlets from 1850 to 1856. The Society was organized in 1849 by the fifth Act of Minnesota's first territorial legislature, and there is information here about its formation and about the region's most notable historical events and cultural characteristics. The Rev. Edward Duffield Neill's address at the first annual meeting summarizes the seventeenth-century explorations by French missionaries and traders in the Upper Midwest. Many other accounts of exploration and discovery follow, ranging from Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's expedition in 1852 to memoirs and biographical sketches of such key figures as Nicolet, Reveille, Hennepin, Le Sueur, D'Iberville, Pike and Carver. There is material on Native American antiquities and cultural practices, the Dakota language, and the Fox and Ojibwe War, and on the establishment of schools, courts, and religious institutions. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 10, Part 1.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It is the first of a two-volume compilation of addresses and papers presented before the Society from 1899 through 1904. These secondary materials deal specifically with Minnesota and regional subjects such as the history of Fort Ripley (1849-1859) and the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux (1851), the history of raising wheat in the Red River Valley, and Minnesota flour manufacture. There are also materials dealing with steamboats on the Minnesota and Red Rivers, railroads, government land surveys in Minnesota west of the Mississippi, and the founding of Hutchinson and its association with the singing Hutchinson family. There are also items concerning the Rev. Joseph W. Hancock's missionary work among the Dakota or Sioux at Red Wing (1849-1852) sponsored by the American Board of Foreign Missions, the early Catholic and Protestant Episcopal church in Minnesota, the history of St. Paul's mid-nineteenth-century real estate, and Minnesota's early schools and libraries. Five major papers by Daniel S. B. Johnston (1832-1914) concern Minnesota journalism during the territorial period and contain quotations and anecdotes. An index for both parts one and two of volume 10 appears at the end of part two (the next volume). (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 10, Part 2.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It is the second of a two-volume compilation of addresses and papers presented before the Society from 1899 through 1904. In addition to memorials, obituaries, and addresses for prominent historical figures (Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple, Governor Alexander Ramsey, Judge Charles Flandrau, and General John B. Sanborn) and other members of the Society, there are articles on Minnesota's Second State Legislature (1859-60), the lumber industry and transportation on the Upper St. Croix River, the eastern, western, and southern boundaries of Minnesota, and the mills erected by federal troops at the Falls of St. Anthony. There is also a major article on Médart Chouart or Sieur des Groseilliers (1625-1698) and his brother-in-law Pierre Esprit Radisson (c.1636-c.1710), with extensive primary and secondary source quotations and an annotated bibliography. These two explorers are believed to be the first Europeans to have reached the Upper Mississippi River. The Sioux chief, Gabriel Reveille, provides an eye-witness account of the Sioux uprising of 1862 and Sibley's expedition against the Sioux in 1863. According to an appended biographical sketch of Reveille by Samuel Brown, Reveille became head scout for General Sibley on the frontier between Minnesota and Dakotah Territory after saving the lives and property of many whites captured by the Sioux during the uprising. An index of all the authors published in the Minnesota Historical Society Collections, vols. 1-10, appears at the end of this volume, as does an index for both parts of volume 10. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 12.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It continues the history of Minnesota's newspapers begun by Daniel S. B. Johnston (1832-1914) in volume 10, part 1 and carries it forward for the years 1858 through 1865, amending some earlier errors and omissions and offering new material complete with quotations, anecdotes, and personal speculations. Other major entries in this volume include histories of the University of Minnesota, the state's capitol buildings, and the frigate Minnesota; discussions of Minnesota charities, the banking industry, boundaries and land surveys; and local topics related to St. Paul, St. Cloud, and Goodhue County. There are also recollections of the territorial and state legislator, William Pitt Murray (1827-1910), and extensive Civil War material by Gen. Lucius Frederick Hubbard (1836-1913), who enlisted as a private in Company A of the Fifth Minnesota Infantry, became brigadier general of his regiment by 1862 and, twenty years later, the ninth governor of Minnesota. Hubbard emphasizes the role of the Minnesota troops in the battle of Corinth (1862), the Vicksburg campaigns (1862-1863), the Red River Expedition (1864), the battle of Nashville (1864), and the Mobile campaign (1865). Much other material in the volume illuminates the relationship between white Americans and the Native Americans of this region, particularly the Dakota or Sioux. The Rev. Samuel William Pond (1808-1891) provides ethnographically detailed information about the Minnesota Sioux in 1834, the year he and his brother Gilbert started a mission at Lake Calhoun. Dr. Asa W. Daniels (1829-1923), a pioneer physician who attended the Wahpekuta and Medawakantonwan bands of the Dakota (1854-1861), reminisces about Chief Little Crow (d. 1853). An address at Fort Snelling commemorates a treaty in 1805 between Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike (1779-1813) and various Sioux chiefs ceding territory to the United States. There is also a brief, historical article about the three chiefs named Wabasha along with some items of archaeological interest. This volume also contains addresses and papers presented to the Minnesota Historical Society from September, 1904-1908 and obituaries for members who died during that time. Memorial addresses honor Judge Greenleaf Clark (1835-1904), Harlan Page Hall (1838-1907), the journalist and newspaper publisher, Horace Austin (1831-1905), governor of Minnesota from 1870 through 1874, and Andrew Ryan McGill (1840-1905), tenth governor of Minnesota (1887-1889). There is also an address marking the presentation to the Society of a portrait of the Rev. Ezekiel Gilbert Gear, the Episcopal chaplain at Fort Snelling. The volume is indexed. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 15.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It begins with three articles about railroads in Minnesota. The first, by Rasmus S. Saby, looks at the history of the state's railroad legislation from 1849 to 1875, and chronicles the granger movement as an expression of farmers' desire to curb the railroads' concentrated wealth and power through the political process. Under public pressure, the Minnesota legislature passed regulatory legislation (the granger laws) in 1874, but repealed it the following year. The second article describes the funding of railroads through land grants and public loans, while the third article concerns the railroads' early corporate history and construction. The volume continues with a report on the Kensington Rune Stone by the Society's museum committee. Sometimes regarded as a hoax, the Rune Stone was discovered in 1898 by a Swedish farmer on his property near Alexandria, and touted as evidence that Vikings had reached the American heartland. Other items concern pioneer and Native American relations. There is a narrative of the Sioux conflict led by Little Crow (1862-1863), and two related reminiscences by authors who lived among the Sioux: Dr. Asa W. Daniels (1829-1923), a pioneer physician, and John Ames Humphrey, who remembers the slaughter of his family at the Lower Sioux Agency. There are also discussions of the public lands and their role in creating Minnesota's school fund, northern Minnesota boundary surveys (1822-1826) after the Treaty of Ghent (1814), a memoir of state politics by Henry A Castle (1836-1917), and material on the sale of Fort Snelling (1857). Other local history articles concern Grey Cloud Island, the Red River region, Centerville, and parks and public grounds in Minneapolis and St. Paul. A biography of Nathaniel Pitt Langford (1832-1911), the first superintendent of Yellowstone National Park, highlights his contributions as an explorer of the Yellowstone region and his involvement with Montana's vigilante movement. It is written by Olin Dunbar Wheeler (1852-1925), who himself served as topographer for the Powell Expedition to the Grand Canyon in 1870. The volume also includes memorial articles on local and regional notables as well as obituaries for Historical Society members who died between 1909 and the end of 1914. The volume is indexed. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 5.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It is devoted to the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, and contains both William W. Warren's "History of the Ojibways Based Upon Traditions And Oral Statements" and the Rev. Edward D. Neill's "History of the Ojibways, And Their Connection With Fur Traders, Based Upon Official And Other Records." William Warren, whose biographical sketch precedes his monograph, was a part-Ojibwe member of the Legislature. Fluent in the Ojibwe language, he served as an interpreter and maintained close contact with Native American relatives. From them and other acquaintances, he collected religious beliefs, oral history, customs, and legends, presenting them for a nineteenth-century audience. He pays particular attention in this monograph to diplomatic, political, and military issues and events and also to the totemic or clan system and to the fur trade. The Rev. Edward D. Neill (1823-1893), a prominent historian and president of Macalester College, compiled brief information about the Ojibwes and their relation to the fur trade, arranging the information chronologically and frequently citing the sources from which it was taken. The volume is indexed. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 7.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It is devoted to a historical discussion by Jacob Vredenberg Brower (1844-1905) about the source and headwaters of the Mississippi River, combined with his extensive hydrographic and topographic surveys. Brower summarizes the major European and white American exploratory trips to the area. Based on a scientific survey of the Itasca Basin that he made under the authority of the Minnesota Historical Society, Brower concludes that the true source of the Mississippi is neither Itasca Lake nor Elk Lake, nor even the stream discovered by Jean N. Nicolet (1836) called "Nicolet's Infant Mississippi River," but the "Greater Ultimate Reservoir" which receives its water supply from aerial precipitation and stores it in various component lakes and springs. Some of these lakes include Hernando de Soto, the Triplets, Whipple, Morrison, and Floating Moss; the streams that proceed from them include the beginnings of the Nicolet as well as the Mississippi. From Nicolet's middle lake the main river proceeds "in an unbroken channel" to the Gulf. After lobbying successfully to have this headwater region preserved as Itasca State Park (1891), Brower served as its first commissioner. The appendix includes an historical account of how the Mississippi and the Lake of the Woods came to form part of the northwestern boundary of the United States. Its author was Albert James Hill (1823-1895), who was also instrumental in the creation of Brower's report. The volume is indexed. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. Volume 9.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Minnesota Historical Society. It devotes considerable space to the papers and speeches presented on the Society's fiftieth anniversary and to the obituaries of various Society members. Other lengthy sections address topics such as Minnesota's transportation history, the Ojibwe, Father Louis Hennepin, and local histories of Duluth, St. Louis County, St. Paul, and Redwood County. There are also sections on the beginnings of Minnesota's Episcopal Church, the lumber industry, the ordinance of 1787, the Sioux (including the 1862 uprising), the Louisiana Purchase and Spanish policy in America. There is also information on the dual origin of Minnesota from land ceded by Britain (1783) and by France (1803), and various aspects of territorial history. There are also biographical notes and reminiscences as well as an account by General Edwin Cooley Mason (1831-1898), a former Inspector General of the Military Department of the Columbia, relating how the San Juan Islands in Washington were eventually acknowledged as the northwest boundary of the United States. The Ojibwe material is written by the Reverend Joseph A. Gilfillan (1838-1913), a Protestant Episcopal missionary on the White Earth Indian Reservation (1872-1898), and by Henry R. Whipple, the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota and an advocate for reforming the policies and administration of U.S. Indian affairs. The volume is indexed. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 11.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It opens with a biographical article and bibliography of Jean Nicolet, the first European to reach the Wisconsin region (1634), and continues with a compilation of "Western State Papers" from periods of French, English, and American domination of the Upper Midwest during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Selections from the third and fourth voyages (1658-1659) of Radisson and Groseilliers follow and chronicle their adventures along the Fox-Wisconsin watercourse, in the Chequamegon Bay vicinity, and in the Chippewa River's headwaters. A group of papers from the Canadian Archives (1778-1783) illuminates the Wisconsin region's history during the Revolutionary War and encompasses copies of all the Haldimand Papers which mention operations in that area. The Haldimand Papers contain the correspondence of British officers with each other and with their commanding officer, General Frederick Haldimand, at Quebec. Thompson Maxwell's narrative describes what may have been the first voyage across Lake Superior under British command, and there are additional documents detailing life at the fur-trading post of Milwaukee. There are also descriptions of Prairie du Chien and Green Bay in the early nineteenth century. This volume provides much information on the fur trade and the Native Americans who participated in it. The material included also discusses European, Native American, and American relations as well as boundary issues, local government structures, Jefferson County's early days, and the financial career of Andrew Mitchell. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 12.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. After an extensive list of materials published by the Historical Society (1850-92) and a memoir of Lyman Coleman Draper, the Society's guiding spirit during most of that period, this volume continues with papers from the Canadian Archives iluminating British influence in the Wisconsin region from 1763 to 1814. Most of the documents are letters from military officers at frontier posts and provide information on the fur trade, Indian affairs (with estimates of tribal populations as well as descriptions of diplomatic negotiations and commerce with the Indians), martial law, and a court of inquiry at Green Bay. There is also an article on Robert Dickson, the Native American trader, a list of American Fur Company Employees, and a biographical sketch and the journal (with supplementary papers) of James McCall, one of three commissioners empowered by President Jackson to settle land disputes between the Winnebagoes, Menomonees, and New York Indians in 1830. In addition, this volume contains Reuben Thwaite's annotated chronicle of the Black Hawk War (1832), papers from Indian Agent George Boyd in 1832, articles on Wisconsin's German and Swiss populations, a list of Chippewa geographical names, an oral reminiscence of the Wisconsin Winnebagoes, a discussion of missions on Chequamegon Bay and and a history of Green Bay's early schools. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 14.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It contains a variety of primary and secondary source materials dealing with the history of Wisconsin from the mid- seventeenth century through the mid-nineteenth century. The opening article, "The Story of Mackinac," is followed by reminiscences of girlhood on the island during the second and third decades of the nineteenth century by Elizabeth Thérèse Baird, who was of Scots and Native- American ancestry. The community she describes, and the tools, techniques, and cultural practices that sustained it, are a blend of European and Native American influences. A history of Fort Winnebago, along with an accompanying orderly book, emphasizes the military aspects of life in the Wisconsin region. Other articles discuss Abraham Lincoln's role as captain of a company of volunteers in the Black Hawk war, Capt. Frederick Marryat's description of his journey through Wisconsin in 1837, early Wisconsin railroad legislation, the Cornish settlements of southwest Wisconsin and the Icelandic settlers of Washington Island. There is also information on the geographical origins and religious motivations of German immigration to Wisconsin and material about the Catholic Church and the Episcopal mission in Green Bay. There is also a first-hand account of the capture of Jefferson Davis, the travel journal of the Rev. Jackson Kemper, an Episcopalian missionary writing about his tour to Green Bay (1834), and a short biography of Father Samuel Mazzuchelli, the Catholic missionary. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 15.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. In this volume, several documents reveal how Native Americans conveyed land and access rights to pre-Territorial pioneers and others show how the Presbyterian and Methodist churches took root in early Wisconsin. The Presbyterian missionary, Cutting Marsh, sent annual reports to the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and these are published here along with other papers and a biographical sketch of his life and work among the Stockbridge Indians at Statesburg (Kaukana). Alfred Brunson, a Methodist minister, writes of his journey on horseback from Pennsylvania to Wisconsin in 1835. Elizabeth Thérèse Baird (whose girlhood at Mackinac is chronicled in volume 14) is represented here by her "Reminiscences of Life in Territorial Wisconsin," (1824-1842), and there is a complete diary by Mathias Duerst, a leader of the Swiss colony at New Glarus. Another Swiss immigrant, Theodore Rodolf, writes of "Pioneering in the Wisconsin Lead Region" (1834-1848). This volume also includes a Sac legend, "Osawgenong,"and the narratives of a fur-trader, a surveyor, and others involved in early commercial activities. A "Report on the Quality and Condition of Wisconsin territory" by Samuel Stambaugh, the Indian Agent at Green Bay, describes Wisconsin just before it acquired Territorial status. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 16.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It is the first of three volumes devoted to the era of French dominance in the fur trade region of the upper Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi (1634-1763), emphasizing the period between 1634 and 1727. Documents are arranged chronologically with the last entries dating from 1727. Much of the material is from the Jesuit Relations and is summarized or excerpted in translation. Accounts of Native American diplomatic and military histories mingle with narratives, reports, and letters by such explorers, traders, and missionaries as Nicolet, Radisson and Groseilliers, Ménard, Allouez, Perrot, Galinée and Dolier, Dablon, Joliet and Marquette, Le Sueur, and Charlevoix. These men provide extensive information, mediated by their own experiences and adventures, about the customs and practices of the Native American groups with whom they came into contact in the Wisconsin area and other parts of what is now considered to be the Midwest. There is much information about the Fox War, the fur trade, the policies of the French government in both Europe and New France, and life at Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other military posts and missions. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 17.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It is the second of three volumes devoted to the era of French dominance of the fur trade region of the upper Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi (1634-1763), emphasizing the period between 1727 and 1748. During this period, Native Americans increasingly participated in economic and cultural transactions with the Europeans. Trading posts at Mackinac and Detroit were linked by trade and travel to subsidiary entrepôts such as Green Bay (La Baye) and Chequamegon (La Pointe). Many of the documents here provide evidence of Fox [Mesquakie] resistance to French dominance and their anti-French alliances with other Native Americans ranging from the Sioux further west to the Six Nations of the Iroquois in the east. Other peoples, such as the Detroit Hurons, the Ottawa, and the Potowatomi [Pottawatomie] are shown playing out localized hostilities in an international arena. After several crippling defeats by the French, tribes loosely confederated against the French revived and revolted during King George's War (1744-1748). The costs of curbing their unrest depleted France's colonial treasury, which the government attempted to restore by leasing posts to the highest bidder. The French government also used its monopoly of the Indian trade to increase prices for supplies sold to their Native-American trading partners. This provoked some of them (such as the Miamis) to develop closer ties with the English. The papers in this volume are arranged chronologically and consist chiefly of translations made from transcripts of papers in French archives, although some previously-published items also appear. They deal with diplomatic, military, and commercial activities, as well as the structures and operations of the French colonial administration. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 18.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It traces the decline of French dominance of the fur trade region of the upper Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi from 1743, when the Sioux allied themselves with the Fox [Mesquakie], to 1760, when the British took control of Mackinac. It also provides extensive information about the British administration of Wisconsin and the influence of both Spanish Louisiana and the United States. There is also a register of marriages performed at Mackinac from 1725-1821, and the journal of Peter Pond describing a visit to Wisconsin (1773-1775) and conveying much about Native American and frontier life as seen through the eyes of a Connecticut traveler. Many documents, some of which have been published before, illuminate the role played by Wisconsin's various population groups and economic interests during the American Revolution. Spanish materials from the Archives of the Indies at Seville appear here in translation and show how Upper Louisiana impinged on the affairs of the Upper Midwest. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 19.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It presents listings of baptisms and burials at Mackinac between 1695 and 1821, supplementing the listings of marriages from the same register that appeared in volume 18. These mission records shed light on relationships between Native Americans, fur-traders, guides, military officers and their families at an important military post and center of the fur trade. They are followed by documents concerning the fur trade in the upper Great Lakes region between 1778 and 1815. First, there is the journal of François Victor Maliot, a novice fur-trader wintering in Lac du Flambeau among the Chippewa in 1804-1805. His text is accompanied by invoices and memoranda illuminating economic practices and business rivalries. Other documents (business and personal correspondence interspersed with a few official documents) are grouped under "The Fur-Trade on the Upper Lakes -- 1778-1815," which discusses the Northwest fur trade during its height under British domination and the earliest years of American influence. The last group of documents, organized as "The Fur-trade in Wisconsin -- 1815-1817," chronicles the ascendancy of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company and the United States's regional expansion. Both of these collections have much to say about the era's great fur corporations--how they organized and managed themselves as economic institutions and how they fostered an occupational culture in which many ethnic groups participated. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 20.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Although it opens with an 1812 assessment of the impact of the United States fur trade's "factory system" on Canada's ability to control Native American economic and diplomatic activities, most of the other materials date from 1818 to 1825. In 1825, a peace treaty at Prairie du Chien fixed territorial boundaries for the Eastern Sioux and made peace between them and the Lake Superior Ojibwe [Chippewa], the Sac and Fox [Mesquakie], Menominee, Iowa, Winnebago and parts of the Ottawa and Potawatomi [Pottawattomies]. It was during this period that the United States took control of the Northwest fur trade and protected its interests with a series of forts: Mackinac, Detroit, Green Bay, Prairie du Chien, and the newly-built Fort Snelling (1819) at the headwaters of the Mississippi. Correspondence and reports reflect divergent opinions on whether the fur trade should be privatized, increasingly under the aegis of the American Fur Company, or supervised through the government's factory system. For those peoples who had been involved with Wisconsin's fur trade for centuries, this was a time of crisis and transition: their trade networks and system of alliances were being disrupted even as their trading practices were subjected to increased local competition and government regulation. Many of the traditional fur- traders of the Wisconsin area were of mixed French and Native American ancestry and were regarded as foreigners by the Americans. Letters to and from August Grignon, a trader on the upper Mississippi, reveal how he was driven from the region through the cutthroat strategies of a competitor. The last document in this volume is the journal kept by Michel Curot, a fur-trader on Yellow River during 1802-1803. In it, the author reveals much about the customs of those dependent on trapping, trading, and other forest activities while Canada was still in control of regional commerce. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volume 25: a machine-readable transcriptiion..
This volume is a collection of important historical documents published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. It is entirely devoted to letters from an English immigrant, Edwin Bottomley (1809-1850), written between 1842 and 1850 to his father, Captain Thomas Bottomley. Edwin Bottomley was born in Mossley near Manchester, and moved to Huddersfield and South Crossland, where his father became manager of the Crossland mills. As a pattern designer and leader of the Methodist church choir, he became prominent in that community. In 1842, however, seeking better prospects than could be found "in a cuntry wher Labour the sorce of all Real wealth is troden under foot By Monopoly Taxation and Opprssion," he emigrated with his wife, Martha, their five children and his bass viol to what would soon be known as English Settlement in western Racine County, Wisconsin. Bottomley farmed seventy acres and within eighteen months moved his family from a temporary shanty to a substantial brick house. The years brought hard work and regular bouts of fever, but enough prosperity for Bottomley to add 300 contiguous acres to the original holding. (The mortgage on this purchase caused him considerable anxiety, and he later turned to his father and brother for financial help). From the beginning, Bottomley was active in civic affairs, helping to establish the local school house and Methodist Episcopal church. His letters contain many references to British political issues and reflect some of the religious tensions of the period. In 1850, Bottomley succumbed to typhoid fever, leaving a will and inventory included here. An index appears at the end of this volume. (English) (search this work)

Cornflake crusade/by Gerald Carson.
This extensively-researched popular history chronicles how Battle Creek, Michigan, became both a health center and the place where America's breakfast cereal industry developed at the turn of the century. Carson tells how Battle Creek first hosted a famous sanitarium run by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943), under the initial sponsorship of the Seventh-Day Adventists, and featuring water cures, vegetarianism, exercise, and sexual abstinence. Kellogg, raised in an Adventist family, later parted company with that denomination over religious differences. His sanitarium encouraged other experimental medical enterprises, transforming Battle Creek into a place where entrepreneurs began to produce "healthy" foods such as crackers, coffee substitutes, and, especially, cereals. Charles W. Post, a disgruntled former Kellogg patient who practiced briefly as a healer himself, achieved early success manufacturing and marketing these new products. By standardizing sizes and recipes for such foods as Grape Nuts and Postum, and combining mass distribution methods with aggressive advertising techniques, Post achieved spectacular success with consumers and paved the way for a host of competitors. Will Keith Kellogg, the second giant among breakfast food manufacturers, produced and marketed the "corn flakes" first developed by his brother John. The W. K. Kellogg Co.'s innovative marketing campaigns emphasized product flavor, international distribution, and free toys or tokens in the cereal box. W. K. Kellogg is widely remembered for having established the philanthropic foundation that bears his name. (English) (search this work)

Crusader and feminist; letters of Jane Grey Swisshelm: 1858-1865.
Jane Grey Swisshelm (1815-1884) was an antislavery advocate, newspaper editor, lecturer, crusader, feminist, and Civil War nurse. She edited two newspapers in Minnesota during the period 1858-1865, when these letters were written: first, the St. Cloud Visiter [sic] and, afterward, the St. Cloud Democrat. The Minnesota Historical Society collected and compiled the series of articles and letters written for the St. Cloud Democrat, publishing them as a book in 1934. In her articles and letters, Swisshelm addresses many of the important issues of her time, including women's rights, slavery, and the frontier conflict between Indians and white settlers. She crusaded for a woman's right to own property, speak in church, and vote. She was an avid antislavery advocate who spoke out against the abusive treatment of slaves and their legal standing as chattel. She advocated harsh treatment toward the Sioux in the aftermath of the 1862 uprising, considering the settlers to be aggrieved victims in this case. That Swisshelm was a prominent figure of her time is demonstrated by her familiarity with influential leaders such as Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. Her book also contains articles she wrote as she traveled around southern Minnesota, some of which describe her experiences with the First Minnesota Regiment at Fort Snelling. (English) (search this work)

This biography of Arthur Le Sueur (1867-1950) and Marian Le Sueur (1877- 1954) was written by Marian's daughter, Meridel Le Sueur (1900-1996), the noted Minnesota writer and social activist. Both Arthur and Marian Le Sueur were avid socialists. Arthur Le Sueur, born in Nininger, Minnesota, established a law practice in Minot, North Dakota, where he edited the agrarian radical newspaper Appeal to Reason and served as a Socialist mayor. At various points, Le Sueur was active with the I.W.W., the Socialist party under Eugene V. Debs, the Non-Partisan League, and the Farmer-Labor Party. He met his wife while both were teaching at The People's College in Fort Scott, Kansas. Marian, a divorcée with children, had previously supported herself by lecturing on subjects ranging from female health issues to women's rights. After their marriage, they settled in St. Paul and Minneapolis, where they championed civil liberties and social justice. According to Meridel Le Sueur, Marian subordinated many of her personal talents while acting as secretary to her husband and struggling to support the family. The author includes testimonials and celebratory poems dedicated to her mother and stepfather. She also critiques their marriage, which she perceived to be stifling to her mother, however satisfying to her stepfather it seemed to be. (English) (search this work)

Detroit and the pleasure resorts of northern Michigan. Compliments of passenger department.
This pamphlet was designed for distribution to travelers and business people, "compliments of the passenger department" of the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad. It promotes tourist destinations, resorts, and towns in late nineteenth-century northern Michigan, especially those of the Northern Peninsula, recommending the area for its healthful climate, hunting, boating, and fishing opportunities, as well as its hotels and developed transportation network. A special section is devoted to Detroit, and another lists its leading business institutions. There are copious illustrations of scenic attractions, cityscapes and street plans, in addition to advertisements ranging from camping gear and guide services to pianos, carriage goods, and medical services. There is also a railroad route map. (English) (search this work)

Early days in the Chippewa Valley.
This is an autobiographical narrative about a young lawyer's search for the best community in which to build a legal practice in the Upper Midwest in the late 1850s. Charles Smith Bundy's experiences reveal how networks of friends, family, and associates from earlier places of residence assisted young men anxious to "get ahead" in mid-nineteenth-century America. Bundy first came to Wisconsin from Oxford, Chenango County, New York, in 1856. His initial contacts in Wisconsin were relatives and two businessmen from his home community, a social foundation from which he was soon able to develop political contacts. His account provides vivid descriptions of Reed's Landing, Pepin, Eau Claire, Menomonie, and Chippewa Falls. (English) (search this work)

Facts and Figures about Michigan; a hand-book of the state, statistical, political, financial, economical, commercial. By Frank J. Bramhall.
This is a small compendium of statistics, charts, timetables, and political information published by the Michigan Central Railroad. It includes lists of members of state boards, the state legislature, and officers of military regiments. Population figures, vote tallies, and numbers drawn from the report of the state treasurer for fiscal year 1884 accompany useful commercial intelligence such as the locations of local post offices and national banks or names and sites of regional newspapers. Thee are schedules for railroads and circuit courts, and a brief geographical and historical summary. Advertisements range from notices of available land to railroad routes, heating devices, tobacco, insurance, and hotels and restaurants. Much of the book's material directly or indirectly promotes the Michigan Central Railroad. (English) (search this work)

Fifty memorable years at St. Olaf; marking the history of the “College on the Hill” from its founding in 1874 to its golden jubilee celebration in 1925.
This booklet of newspaper articles and photographs, reprinted from the Northfield News, chronicles the first fifty years of St. Olaf college with an emphasis on its relationship to the Norwegian ("Norse") immigrant experience, especially in Minnesota. There is statistical information here about Minnesotans of Norse background, their occupations and their population. Grose tells why so many Norwegians emigrated from the 1840s through the 1860s, and discusses some of the traits he believes characterize them as an ethnic group. St. Olaf is a Lutheran college, and this work includes an extended tribute to its founder, the Rev. Bernt Julius Muus, who first came to Minnesota in 1859 as a Lutheran missionary. From its opening in 1875, the college received extensive support from the Norse community, which espoused education as a principal means of advancement. (English) (search this work)

Fifty years in America.
Nils Nilsen Rønning (1870-1962) emigrated from Norway to Minnesota in 1887 to settle with his brother, who had emigrated previously. Fifty Years in America narrates Rønning's cultural adjustment and education at Red Wing Seminary and the University of Minnesota, his spiritual development, and his involvement with the Lutheran Church in Minnesota. In discussing the latter, he focuses on different schools of thought in the Lutheran Church, especially among Minnesota's evangelical Lutherans, and provides information on how these differences had their root in the political and religious life of Norway. Rønning was a writer, an editor, and a publisher. Proud of the rich, folkloric traditions of his birthplace, Telemark, he recounts the literary paths by which he immersed himself in the English language. For several years he worked part-time for the Augsburg Publishing House of the Norwegian Lutheran Church and later took on a number of independent projects, publishing Christian literature for Lutherans and other titles designed for Scandinavian- American audiences. (English) (search this work)

Fifty years in the Northwest.
William Henry Carman Folsom (1817-1900), Minnesota legislator, businessman, and historian, emigrated from Maine to the Upper Midwest when he was nineteen years old. There he lived the rest of his life, achieving prominence in the lumber business and other related activities. His autobiography provides a detailed history of Minnesota, county by county, with a particular emphasis on the region's most prominent men and the role they played in its economic, political, and cultural development. For the most part, chapters are devoted to the histories of one or more counties and contain capsule biographies as well as significant geographical and institutional features. There are several narratives of early settlement and anecdotes about the relationships between settlers and Indians. Preceding the historical materials is an extensive autobiographical introduction. (English) (search this work)

Fifty years on the firing line.
James W. Witham, born in 1856, was a journalist and advocate for the rights and concerns of farmers. In Fifty Years on the Firing Line, Witham traces his childhood in Ohio and his political coming of age in the Midwest during the mid-nineteenth century. While working as a farm laborer in Nebraska and Iowa, Witham started canvassing for farmer's rights in a farmer's paper, The Western Rural, a practice he continued for many years. In the fall of 1878, he met the populist leader, Gen. James B. Weaver, the first of many influential political leaders who became the subjects of his writing. He wrote about the origins of the Farmer's Alliance organization while playing a role in its formation. By 1882, he was attending state legislative sessions in Iowa, Nebraska, and Minnesota as a reporter and advocate. In this book, he discusses some of the legislative struggles that pitted farmers against big business and offers reasons why farmers should be allowed to form organizations to advocate their cause. Witham also criticizes the practice of railroad companies providing free riding privileges to journalists and elected public officials, contending that this practice biased these professions in favor of the railroads. He became well-known for his advice columns in the St. Paul Daily News, signed as "The Cornfield Philosopher." The bulk of Witham's experiences discussed here reflect his long residency in Iowa. There is, however, a wealth of information about Minnesota politics of the 1910s and early 1920s. (English) (search this work)

Five years in Minnesota. Sketches of life in a western state.
Maurice Farrar was an Englishman authorized by Minnesota in 1880 to act as an Agent for the promotion of Immigration through lecturing in Great Britain. He spent five years in Minnesota during the late 1870s and, upon his return home, published this promotional work extolling the farming life there. The preface makes clear his intention of encouraging inhabitants of Britain to emigrate to a land seemingly unaffected by agricultural depression. His favorable review of Minnesota centers on Fairmont, in Martin County, which he describes as an "English colony" settled by natives of Great Britain from all walks of life. He then talks about the woods of Fillmore County and the town of Chatfield which he follows with a visit to a Chippewa reservation, White Earth. For much of the rest of the book, Farrar discusses sports, politics, and social life, finishing with a detailed exploration of factors that might induce one to emigrate. An appendix of agricultural crops, ploughing, appropriate housing and other practical information concludes this volume. (English) (search this work)

Floral home; or, First years of Minnesota. Early sketches, later settlements, and further developments.
Harriet E. Bishop (1817-1883) emigrated to Minnesota from New England in 1847. She was recruited by Catherine Beecher's Board of National Popular Education to establish a school in St. Paul, Minnesota and to serve as its first formal teacher, reaching students of French, English, Swiss, Sioux, Chippewa, and African-American backgrounds. Her book, Floral Home, is divided into three components: "Early Sketches," "Later Settlements," and "Further Developments." "Early Sketches" provides accounts of the earliest known white explorers and settlers to the region and discusses the source of the Mississippi River as well as the establishment of Fort Snelling. "Later Settlements" encompasses the period from about 1835-1850 and includes her own arrival. "Further Developments" covers the period after 1850 that saw an explosion of growth in Minnesota. Bishop describes the region's culture, its varied population, its geography and land-use, its natural resources, and the development of its religious, educational, and governmental institutions. There are comments upon the progress of St. Paul, St. Anthony's Falls, St. Croix Falls, Stillwater, and Minneapolis and Minnesota's formation into a territory. Bishop also relates many encounters with the Chippewa and the Sioux [Dakotas] and offers insights about how vastly different cultures co-existed on the frontier. She includes several poems about topics of local significance, some without attribution. (English) (search this work)

La Follette's autobiography; a personal narrative of political experiences, by Robert M. La Follette.
The autobiography of Robert La Follette (1855-1925) traces the political life and accomplishments of this eminent Republican politician from his election as district attorney for Dane County, Wisconsin in 1880 to the presidential campaign of 1912, when his bid to dislodge President William Howard Taft was pushed aside by former president Theodore Roosevelt on the Progressive Party's national ticket. The book emphasizes tactics, strategies, and coalition-building as well as La Follette's assessments of various local and national public figures. We learn little about La Follette's childhood, education, legal training or family life, although he does pay tribute to his wife, a lawyer and civic reformer in her own right. La Follette served three terms in Congress (1885-1891); and after a decade of private law practice and grassroots activism, was elected Wisconsin's governor (1900-1904). From 1905 until his death, La Follette was a senator. He crusaded at state and national level against powerful, unregulated business interests--especially the railroads--which he felt exerted undue influence upon government. He also championed open primary elections, equitable taxation of corporations, and public management of public resources by highly qualified, non-partisan public servants. While many of these influential reforms were instituted at the state level during his governorship, his contribution in the Senate may have had less to do with his legislative record than with his ability to rally forces around well-articulated programs. (English) (search this work)

The frontier holiday; being a collection of writings by Minnesota pioneers who recorded their divers ways of observing Christmas, Thanksgiving and New Year's.
This collection of brief first-person descriptions and anecdotes chronicles how Christmas, New Year's, and Thanksgiving were celebrated in nineteenth-century Minnesota. The materials are drawn from documents at the Minnesota Historical Society, and many have appeared before in print. They range from Zebulon Pike's journal entries for December 25, 1805 and January 1, 1806 (which mention extra rations and presents for members of his expedition) to translated excerpts from the Swedish writer's Hugo Nisbeth's travel narrative, Two Years in America (1872-1874). Most of these accounts date from the middle of the century. Topics include a community Christmas celebrated in the schoolhouse; New Year's open houses; Christmas in early Minneapolis, Winona, and Fort Snelling; Christmas customs adapted by Native Americans; and a Thanksgiving feast. (English) (search this work)

A gallery of pen sketches in black and white of our Michigan friends "as we see 'em.", by Newpaper cartoonists' association of Michigan.
This is a collection of cartoons and caricatures of Michigan's business leaders, professionals, politicians, and other notables drawn by cartoonists from such newspapers as the Detroit News and the Free Press. The subjects are treated as a pantheon of "Michiganders," "who perform their share of the world's work in such a manner as to bring them into public notice." Each illustration combines a realistic portrait of the subject's head with a caricatured body, and shows him performing activities associated with his particular calling. Icons, symbols, and stereotypes facilitate instant recognition of the trades, businesses, and professions represented. There are no women included, and ethnic minorities are occasionally portrayed in a disparaging manner. (English) (search this work)

Gazetteer of the state of Michigan.
This is a detailed compendium of information about Michigan in 1839. Part One presents a "general view of the state," describing Michigan's geology, soil, climate and topography as well as its improvements, products, governance, religious and educational institutions, population, and antiquities. Part One also incorporates a "Succinct History of the State," which treats major events from the era of French exploration through statehood. Part Two provides a general view of each county, including its seat of justice, principal towns and villages, waterways and natural resources, political subdivisions, and population. Part Three imparts similar information for all the organized townships, and includes a large section on Detroit. Finally, there are a few pages of advice for immigrants. (English) (search this work)

H. P. Hall's observations; being more or less a history of political contests in Minnesota from 1849 to 1904.
Harlan Page Hall (1838-1907) founded the St. Paul Dispatch in 1868 and devoted most of his life to journalism. This book, based on personal reminiscences, chronicles the contests and struggles of Minnesota's political parties from its territorial years through the early twentieth century. He emphasizes the parties' factional struggles but also connects politics within the state to national campaigns, candidates, and issues. Hall describes local politics in light of the region's conflicting economic interests and devotes considerable attention to political strategy at the grassroots level. (English) (search this work)

Half a century.
At the beginning of her autobiography, Jane Swisshelm announces that she intends to show the relationship of faith to the antislavery struggle, to record incidents characteristic of slavery, to provide an inside look at hospitals during the Civil War, to look at the conditions giving rise to the nineteenth-century struggle for women's rights, and to demonstrate, through her own life, the "mutability of human character." After her father's death in 1823, she helped support her family through hard work and teaching school. Her marriage in 1836 to James Swisshelm, a Methodist farmer's son, resulted in continual conflict with her husband's family, who sought to convert her to their own beliefs. After a few years in Louisville, Kentucky, where Swisshelm observed slavery first-hand, she left her husband to nurse her mother in Pittsburgh. She wrote several articles for the antislavery Spirit of Liberty and the Pittsburgh Commercial Journal, then in 1848 started her own anti-slavery newspaper, the Pittsburg Saturday Visiter [sic]. Her views on slavery, women's issues, and the Mexican- American War soon attracted a national readership. In 1856 she started another abolitionist paper, the Democrat, and began to lecture frequently on slavery and the legal disabilities of women. She opposed those who advocated leniency for the leaders of the 1862 Sioux uprising, and took her cause to Washington, D.C., on the advice of state officials. While there she secured a position nursing wounded Union soldiers and raising supplies for their benefit. Her narrative ends with her discharge and retirement to an old log block house on ten acres of her husband's family holdings. (English) (search this work)

Hand book of Wisconsin: second edition, enlarged and improved.
This pocket-sized book provides statistical and geographical information about Wisconsin in the 1850s, including topographical descriptions, a listing of natural resources, educational data, a discussion of available lands and instructions for filing land claims, information about unsurveyed lands, census figures, the economic activities of each county, and transportation routes. Advertisements from publishers, retailers, and members of the professions appear in the back pages. (English) (search this work)

Historical Collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 10.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. Volume 10 combines approximately two hundred pages of articles written about local, territorial, and state history with a second installment of materials from the Haldimand Papers, continued from Volume 9. The Haldimand Papers are materials culled from Canadian archives in Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, to illuminate British influence and activities in the Great Lakes region during the era of the American Revolution and its aftermath. Articles in the first part of the volume range from the presidential campaign of 1840 to the early history of Michigan horticulture. They cover early Michigan surveys; town histories and recollections of Detroit, Flint, Green, and Watertown; religious institutions such as the Freewill Baptist Church of Cook's Prairie, the old Moravian mission at Mount Clemons, and the Methodist Episcopal Church of Galesburg; and Native American customs, lore, and history. Excerpts from the White Pigeon Republican report the proceedings of a council held at Notawassippi (St. Joseph County) in 1839 between the Potawatomi [Pottawattomies] remaining in Michigan and Indiana and Isaac S. Ketchum. Two chiefs, Red Bird and Muckmote, speak in detail about why their people rejected a proposal to move west of the Mississippi. Two poems, both printed in the White Pigeon Republican, 1839, meditate upon the graves and forest life-style of vanished Indians. There are also several short biographies and testimonials. The volume's installment of the Haldimand papers continues the correspondence by frontier-based British officers with each other and with their commanding officer, General Frederick Haldimand, at Quebec. The excerpts here emphasize European, Native American, and American relations from the 1760s through the early 1780s and provide documentation about Native American councils and court proceedings, civil and military life, corn contracts, movements in the Ohio Country, ceremonies, inventories and supplies, census figures for Detroit and St. Joseph, indemnification, Native American oratory, trade, medical care, and military intelligence. A general index and name index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 11.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. This volume opens with the President of the Society's address along with reports, memorials, personal reminiscences, and local history papers delivered at the 1887 annual meeting. Some of these papers deal with the Ordinance of 1787, early exploration of Lake Superior and life in and around its copper mines, Fort Gratiot, and the Calhoun and Kalamazoo County legal communities. The second half of the volume is devoted to the Haldimand Papers, continuing the series of publications from them that began in Volumes 9 and 10. The Haldimand Papers consist chiefly of the correspondence of frontier-based British officers with each other and their commanding officer, General Frederick Haldimand, at Quebec. They were culled from Canadian archives in Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, to illuminate British influence and activities in the Great Lakes region during the era of the American Revolution and its aftermath. Documents here emphasize European, Native American, and American relations from 1782-1790 and provide information about Native American Councils and transactions, civil as well as military life, corn supplies, inventories, Native American oratory and a speech to Congress (1786), medicine, treaties, and military intelligence. There are extensive sections dealing with the state of trade (as reported by Montreal merchants), and with the proceedings of a Court of Inquiry investigating complaints by traders of Michilimackinac about the conduct of an employee of the Indian Department and his interpreter. A general index and an index of names appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of State auditors. Volume 12.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. The first half of the volume is devoted to a fourth installment of papers selected from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, to illuminate British influence and activities in the Great Lakes region during the era of the American Revolution and the early American republic. Materials here pertain to the years 1788-1799 and provide information on British policy towards the Native Americans, Native American activities and attitudes, supplies, ordnances, corn relief , the condition of Michilimackinac's fort, treaties, Chief Blue Jacket, desertion from the British navy, new defenses, and miscellaneous reports. The second half of the volume continues the publication of papers from the Historical Society at Detroit begun in Volume 8. These documents include miscellaneous letters, warrants, legal and judicial papers, the constitution of a Ladies' Society, a thanksgiving proclamation, papers pertaining to Mexican prisoners of wars, and public addresses, including an address by the Port Sarnia Indians to the Queen. There are also citizen petitions, memorials, papers relative to a demonstration of African Americans and their evacuation to Canada, a Detroit census, an unsigned recollection of Patriot War activities across the border from Canada (1837-1838), a circular about Michigan's resources along with its replies, and material about the Young Men's Society of Detroit and the Detroit Young Men's Temperance Society. In addition, several pages are devoted to the opinions, addresses, resolutions, and letters of Judge Woodward and to the proceedings against the Earl of Selkirk. Signed articles include the narrative of an escape from the Potawatomi [Potawattomie] Indians in 1814, Congregationalism in Michigan, an account of the boundary dispute with Ohio, the Battle of Phillip's Corners, the early history of Lenawee County, and a history of the War with the Foxes and the Sacs. An appendix with notes, a general index, and a name index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 15.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. It contains another installment of materials selected from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, in this case chosen to illuminate British influence, perspectives, and activities in the Great Lakes region during the War of 1812. The materials published here consist chiefly of reports and correspondence among British officers stationed at frontier posts in Canada and Michigan and with their commanding officers. The documents shed light on the island of Mackinac's strategic importance, Gen. Hull's surrender of Detroit, and British-Indian relations. They are divided into five sections: "Relations with the United States and events preliminary to war," "Declaration of War--Campaign of 1812," "Campaign of 1813," "Campaign of 1814," and "Appendix with elaborate notes to Second Edition." They include an extract discussing the state of the province of Upper Canada, and a biography of Gen. Henry Procter. An appendix with notes and an index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 16.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. It contains a further installment of materials selected from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, to illuminate British influence, perspectives, and activities in the Great Lakes region at the end of the War of 1812 and immediately thereafter (1815-1819), continuing the selection of documents begun in Volume 15. The materials published here consist chiefly of reports and correspondence among British officers stationed at frontier posts in Canada and Michigan and with their commanding officers. These concern the restitution of posts, military stores, supplies and ordnance, claims, a court martial and courts of inquiry, allegations of seditious behavior, medical care, and Native American affairs and activities (including Native American Councils at Amherstburg and Drummond Island). Other topics are treaties and ratifications, including the ratification of a treaty between the United States and the Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawanese, and Potawatomi [Pottawattomies] (reported in the Detroit Gazette, February 19, 1819), and British and American diplomatic correspondence. An appendix with notes and an index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 19.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. It is devoted to another installment of materials selected from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, in this case chosen to illuminate British influence, perspectives, and activities in the Great Lakes region between 1721 and the end of America's Revolutionary War. These documents are concerned with Detroit, Michilimackinac, Mackinac, and St. Joseph and other Upper Country military and Upper Posts. A report on the American Colonies was written on September 8, 1721 as a "representation of the Lords' Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to the King" and contains an official account of French and British friction in the Indian territories between 1712 and 1721. Brief reports written in 1761 (Indian trade in the Upper Country) and 1762 (to General Jeffery Amherst from Thomas Gage on the condition of Montreal) are also included. There are military dispatches from General Amherst (1758-1762) and letters sent to and from Col. Henry Bouquet (1759-1765) that shed light on events associated with the French and Indian War. Excerpts from the Haldimand Papers are continued from Volume 11 and cover the years from 1773 to 1781. They consist chiefly of correspondence among British officers stationed at frontier posts and with their commanding officer, General Frederick Haldimand, at Quebec. These documents shed light on such aspects of military life as inventories, stores, invoices, reparations, requests for supplies, and the complexities and mechanisms of British and Native American relations. An appendix with notes and an index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 20.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. It contains the last installment of the Haldimand Papers, continued from Volume 19 and covering the years 1782- 1789. The Haldimand Papers were selected from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa by B.W. Shoemaker, the Society's representative, to illuminate British influence and activities in the Great Lakes region during the era of the American Revolution and its aftermath. The materials in this volume report the reestablishment of peace between Great Britain and the United States, and the vacating of some of the Upper Military Posts. There is a detailed account of a September 6, 1783 Council convened by Alexander McKee, Esq., Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs, and attended by the Hurons of Sandusky, Delawares, Shawanese, Mingoes, Creeks, and Cherokees with Capt. Joseph Brant, accompanied by a deputation from the Six Nations of the Iroquois and T'Sindatton and a deputation of Lake Indians from Detroit. Much of the rest of this installment of the Haldimand Papers is devoted to British, Native American, and American relations. These are also the subject of the second half of the volume, which contains additional military correspondence in the Canadian Archives at Ottawa. There is extensive correspondence from Joseph Chew (a loyalist who served as Secretary of the Indian Department under Sir William Johnson and others of the Johnson family), that includes a copy of a peace treaty (signed at Grenville August 3, 1795) between the United States and the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chipewas, Putawatames, Miamis, Eel River, Weeas, and Kickapoas. An appendix with notes and an index appear at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society ... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 9.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. This is the first of several volumes that contain excerpts from the "Haldimand Papers," materials culled from Canadian archives in Ottawa by the Society's representative, B.W. Shoemaker, to illuminate British influence and activities in the Great Lakes region during the era of the American Revolution and its aftermath. The Haldimand Papers consist chiefly of the correspondence of frontier-based British officers with each other and their commanding officer, General Frederick Haldimand, at Quebec. The documents emphasize European, Native American, and American relations from 1776-1784 and frequently address issues connected with the Revolutionary War. There is a description of Michilimackinac in 1781, a report of Native American Councils at Detroit, a trip to Lake Superior in 1784, and papers concerning Samuel Robertson, a prisoner. In addition, there is a presidential address, and reports, memorials, personal reminiscences, and local history papers presented at the annual meeting of the Pioneer Society in 1886. There are also papers discussing the American settlement of Ottawa County, read in honor of the county's semi- centennial celebration, with attention to the area's soil and climate, pioneer settlements and fruit culture, commerce and ship-building, early newspapers and churches (Dutch, German, and English-speaking), and its medical and educational history. There is also an eye-witness account of the fire that devastated Holland, Michigan in 1871. An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

Historical collections. Collections and researches made by the Michigan pioneer and historical society... Reprinted by authority of the Board of state auditors. Volume 8.
This volume is a collection of several different kinds of important historical documents published by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. It opens with a presidential address and other reports, memorials, personal reminiscences, and local history papers delivered at the Society's annual meeting in 1885. Numerous copies and translations of historical documents follow, divided into "leading papers" and "miscellaneous documents." Highlights include a translation of the "Pontiac Manuscript" (a first-hand, knowledgeable narrative of Pontiac's Rebellion conjectured to have been the work of a French priest), which is supplemented by other eyewitness accounts and letters. Some of the other articles discuss Canadian sources for researching Michigan history, Father Marquette and other early Jesuit missionaries in the region, a plot to transfer Michigan's lower peninsula to British ownership (1795), and early settlements in Detroit and its environs by the French and others. The documents include reports of Indian unrest, tax lists, deeds, bills and receipts, town site plans, military expeditions, and an "Address of the Chiefs of the Chippewa Nation." An index appears at the end of the volume. (English) (search this work)

A history of Herring Lake; with an introductory legend, The bride of mystery.
Herring Lake is located in Benzie County along the shores of Lake Michigan. John Howard, the self-styled "bard of Benzie," chronicles its history through legends, anecdotes, and an abundance of antiquarian information about local artifacts, town characters, Indians, and memorable occurrences. He discusses Watervale's transformation from a "defunct lumber village" to a summer resort community, and recalls vanished technological processes used in processing and transporting lumber. The book's preface is a verse legend, "The Bride of Mystery," concerning the courtship, marriage, and drowning of an Indian maiden, "Arequipah.". (English) (search this work)

History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan; a grammar of their language, and personal and family history of the author.
Blackbird (Mack-e-te-be-nessy) was an Ottawa chief's son who served as an official interpreter for the U.S. government and later as a postmaster while remaining active in Native American affairs as a teacher, advisor on diplomatic issues, lecturer and temperance advocate. In this work he describes how he became knowledgeable about both Native American and white cultural traditions and chronicles his struggles to achieve two years of higher education at the Ypsilanti State Normal School. He also deals with the history of many native peoples throughout the Michigan region (especially the Mackinac Straits), combining information on political, military, and diplomatic matters with legends, personal reminiscences, and a discussion of comparative beliefs and values, and offering insights into the ways that increasing contact between Indians and whites were changing native lifeways. He especially emphasizes traditional hunting, fishing, sugaring, and trapping practices and the seasonal tasks of daily living. Ottawa traditions, according to the author, recall their earlier home on Canada's Ottawa River and how they were deliberately infected by smallpox by the English Canadians after allying themselves with the French. Blackbird finds Biblical parallels with Ottawa and Chippewa accounts of a great flood and a fish which ingests and expels a celebrated prophet. He includes his own oratorical "Lamentation" on white treatment of the Ottawas, twenty-one moral commandments of the Ottawa and Chippewa, the Ten Commandments and other religious material in the Ottawa and Chippewa language, and a grammar of that language. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft appears in the narrative in his role as an Indian agent. (English) (search this work)

Intimate letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869.
This is a collection of personal letters written by the eminent German- American statesman, Carl Schurz (1829-1906), to his immediate family and close friends. Schurz maintained a legal residence in Watertown, Wisconsin from 1855 to 1866, even though lecture tours and campaign speeches took him all across the northern United States. Several of these letters deal with Schurz's Wisconsin years, and most are published here for the first time in English. They are filled with descriptive insights about German immigrants and native-born Americans as well as about the newly developing urban centers of the Upper Midwest. Schurz was a political revolutionary during his university years in his native Germany. When he emigrated to the United States, he became an outstanding spokesman for the anti-slavery cause and the Republican party. One of his missions was to mobilize German-American communities against slavery, but his rhetorical skills in English as well as German soon won him a broader following. Later, Schurz became an ardent champion of civil service reform. His other contributions to American life ranged from farming and practicing law to serving as Ambassador to Spain (1861-62), Civil War general (1862-63), Senator from Missouri (1869-75), organizer of the Liberal Republican Party (1872), and Secretary of the Interior (1877-81), where he made the conservation of natural resources an object of policy for the first time. Schurz was also considered one of the leading journalists of his day, editing the New York Evening Post (1881- 83) and writing for Harper's Weekly (1892-1901). His biographies of Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln are still read today. (English) (search this work)

Journal of a trip to Michigan in 1841.
This brief journal, written for the author's wife and father, describes a three- week trip from Rochester, New York to southern Michigan by way of the Great Lakes. Swan's business seems to have been the manufacture of soda water, and he visited some drug stores in Detroit in order to promote his wares. After a brief stop in Ypsilanti, he spent the weekend in Ann Arbor, where he attended church. He then took a stage for Jackson, Marshall and the Genesee Prairies (near Kalamazoo), where he visited a sister and brother. In Michigan he also stopped at Summerville, Niles, La Porte Prairie, White Pidgeon Prairie, Clinton, and Saline. Swan writes enthusiastically about the prairies' wildflowers and abundant natural beauty, and describes life aboard Great Lakes steamers in some detail. He also voices candid opinions about women, food, and the discomforts of travel. (English) (search this work)

Life story of Rasmus B. Anderson, written by himself, with the assistance of Albert O. Barton.
Rasmus Anderson (1846-1936), the American author, scholar, editor, businessman and diplomat, intertwines his life story with the cultural and institutional history of the Norwegian-American community as a whole. There are eyewitness accounts of tension within American factions and branches of the Lutheran church over such issues as slavery and public education as well as anecdotes about Ole Bull, Knut Hamsun, Björnstjerne Björnson, Robert La Follette, James G. Blaine and various European monarchs and heads of state. Anderson began his life on a farm in Albion, Dane County, Wisconsin. After many efforts to finance and obtain the kind of education he wanted, he pioneered the study and teaching of Scandinavian languages at the University of Wisconsin (1869-1883). Between 1885 and 1889, he served as U.S. minister to Denmark. He eventually prospered as president of the Wisconsin Life Insurance Co., from 1895-1922. In 1874, Anderson attracted widespread attention with his America Not Discovered By Columbus. He is remembered for his studies, translations, and retellings of Norse mythology. The more active and public aspects of his life are emphasized in this work. (English) (search this work)

Lives of the governors of Minnesota.
This Minnesota Historical Society publication provides biographical chapters on all Minnesota's territorial and state governors from Alexander Ramsey through John Albert Johnson. The author, James Baker, was a former Secretary of State who played an active role in state politics for many years. Nevertheless, he claims to have written his entries in a non- partisan spirit and brings his years of experience to bear upon the careers and the times he describes. There is a full-page photograph of each governor, and an extensive index. (English) (search this work)

Long, long ago / by Clara C. Lenroot.
This is a short, anecdotal reminiscence of a mid-nineteenth century Wisconsin girlhood, written over fifty years later. Clara Clough Lenroot grew up in the country, as well as the towns of Hudson, Osceola Mills, and Superior. She describes her personal experiences and local folkways of her youth, including home remedies, songs, and food traditions, and mingles her narrative with lengthy quotations in verse. (English) (search this work)

Lucinda Hinsdale Stone, her life story and reminiscences. By Belle McArthur Perry ... Introduction by Ellen M. Henrotin.
This is a collection of reminiscences of and about Lucinda Hinsdale Stone (1814-1900), one of Michigan's foremost spokespersons for coeducation and equal educational rights for women during the late nineteenth century. Born in Hinesburg, Vermont, she received a classical education as the first female graduate of Hinesburg Academy. After teaching at Burlington Seminary and, later, as a private tutor on a Mississippi plantation, she married James Andrus Blinn Stone, a Baptist minister. In 1843, Lucinda Stone took over a fledgling branch of the University of Michigan in Kalamazoo. There she began to teach women through a separate female department until she resigned in 1863 in a controversy over exposing students to literature considered inappropriate for ladies. She continued to teach most of her students out of her own home and eventually escorted women on guided study tours of Europe. As part of her efforts to educate women, she helped found the Ladies Library Association of Kalamazoo. In 1873, influenced by various New England women's clubs, she organized the first full-fledged women's club in Michigan. There are few details here about her later life, but there are abundant testimonials about her importance as a public speaker, journalist, and charter member of the Michigan Woman's Press Association. The book also includes abundant excerpts from Stone's writings about eminent people she encountered abroad and at home. (English) (search this work)

Marquette, Mackinac Island and the “Soo.”.
This pamphlet consists of photographs of views and landmarks in various locales along the southern shore of Lake Superior: Marquette, St. Ignace, Ishpeming, Champion, Collinsville, Sault Ste. Marie, and Mackinac Island. The scenes include several large hotels, picturesque landscapes, Father Marquette's grave, locks around the waters of the Sault accommodating large ships, the International Railway Bridge, and the Lake Superior Iron Mine. B.F. Childs of Marquette, Michigan is the photographer, and he evidently intended the pamphlet to appeal to the tourist trade, since the illustrations are arranged as if in a souvenir scrap-book. (English) (search this work)

Medical history of Michigan: Volume I.
This illustrated volume compiled by the Michigan State Medical Society presents information about medical developments in Michigan in the early and middle nineteenth century in loosely-organized chapters. The material is drawn from reminiscences, historical chronicles, anecdotes, scholarly journals, letters, and biographical as well as autobiographical accounts. Topics include Native American medicine; physicians who accompanied the European and early American explorers of the upper Northwest; the development of Michigan's medical education and public health resources; diseases and epidemics; insects; homeopathy; diagnostic aids; medical equipment; and therapeutic practice. Many physicians are remembered in short factual entries or sketches. A few, like the pioneer physiologist William Beaumont (who conducted digestive research by monitoring a patient's exposed entrails), receive entire articles. (English) (search this work)

Medical history of Michigan: Volume II.
This second volume of Medical History of Michigan continues the format established in the first volume and includes an index for both (p. 83). The emphasis here is upon the latter half of the nineteenth century, a time when Michigan physicians were developing a professional code of ethics, standards, and regulatory mechanisms. Topics include the re- organization of the State Medical Society, the controversy over homeopathy, and how hospitals became the preferred setting for major medical procedures. (English) (search this work)

Memoirs, historical and edifying, of a missionary apostolic of the order of Saint Dominic among various Indian tribes and among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America.
Born and educated in Milan, Italy, Samuel Mazzuchelli (1806-1864) began his American ministry in 1828 at Mackinac Island, a center of the fur trade. Building churches, organizing schools, and preaching in both French and English, he traveled the Mississippi and the Great Lakes over long distances and in all seasons. After 1839, he continued much of his work in Iowa as a vicar-general to the bishop of the newly-created see of Dubuque. Mazzuchelli eventually founded both a men's college and a teaching convent, the Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary, in Sinsinawa, Wisconsin, and extended the Church's outreach within Native American communities. In 1849, Mazzuchelli relinquished many of his administrative responsibilities to become the priest of the parish at Benton, Wisconsin, where he also served as director of the novitiate and school opened by the Sisters of the Congregation of the Holy Rosary. Mazzuchelli's Memoirs are divided into three sections: the first focuses upon missions among Native Americans and Canadians in Wisconsin and Michigan; the second deals with missions among Catholic and Protestant immigrants in the territories of Wisconsin and Iowa; and the third is a disquisition on the present and future state of Catholicism and Protestantism in the United States. Although spiritual matters are the principal concern, the memoirs also convey much about the Upper Midwest's political life and early community institutions. (English) (search this work)

Memoirs of Jeremiah Curtin.
Born to an Irish Catholic family, Jeremiah Curtin (1835-1906), a linguist, translator, and folklorist, spent his early years on a farm in Greenfield, Wisconsin, and the first portion of this memoir, compiled by his wife, Alma Cardell Curtin, concerns his rural Wisconsin boyhood and subsequent struggles to obtain a scholarly education. After graduating from Harvard (1863), where he studied under Francis James Child, he moved to New York, read law, and worked for the U.S. Sanitary Commission while translating and teaching languages. He then traveled to St. Petersburg, Russia (1864), where he served as Secretary to the American legation headed by Cassius Clay. The memoir describes their difficult relationship, as well as Curtin's first travels through Russia and the Caucasus. Upon his return to the United States, Curtin lectured throughout the country about Russia, marrying Alma Cardell of Warren, Vermont in 1872. (English) (search this work)

Memoirs of Mary D. Bradford: Autobiographical and historical reminiscences of education in Wisconsin, through progressive service from rural school teaching to city superintendent.
Born in the farming community of Paris, Kenosha County, in 1856, Mary Davison Bradford was forced by her father's ill health to begin teaching at the age of sixteen, before she had finished high school, and she continued to work actively as an educator until 1922. Bradford describes how she taught in small rural schools, in the expanding Kenosha system, and at centers of educational experimentation such as Central State Teachers College at Stevens Point and the Stout Training School at Menomonie. Eventually appointed Superintendent of Schools in Kenosha, Bradford instituted kindergarten, vocational training programs, breakfast programs for needy children, and politically independent procurement and hiring processes, and advocated courses in citizenship and health education. Bradford's autobiography chronicles the development of Wisconsin's public school system in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Wisconsin had a strong commitment to primary, secondary, and higher public education in this era, and Bradford's work reflects at the grassroots level many of the pedagogic reforms then sweeping the country. (English) (search this work)

Memorials of a half-century.
This collection of essays by a noted writer, explorer, and Detroit civic leader offers detailed descriptions of Michigan's geography, geology, and local history in a consciously crafted literary style. Hubbard discusses the natural history of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and Lake Huron; topographical and geological features of Michigan; a geological expedition to the salt springs of the Grand and Saginaw river valleys with the new state's geologist, Dr. Houghton (1837); local factors and the 1837-38 financial panic; and land speculation and settlement. In addition Hubbard writes about Michigan Indians and Indian antiquities; flora and fauna, animal behavior; climatology; and the world of Michigan's French-speaking inhabitants, especially Detroit habitants, rural farmers, and voyageurs (who paddled the waterways as guides, trappers, and tradesmen), comparing the life-styles of French speakers and Yankees. The book is heavily illustrated with sketches of Indian artifacts, landscapes, folk architecture, trees, and diagrams representing the Mound-Builders' ancient garden beds. (English) (search this work)

Memories of early Wisconsin and the gold mines.
John Barber Parkinson's memoir begins with reminiscences about life in southern Wisconsin from the late 1830s through the early 1850s, before turning to an account of the eighteen-year old Parkinson's overland trek to the goldfields of California. As a small child, Parkinson settled with his family in 1836 on a farm near Mineral Point (1836), and in the pages devoted to his childhood, he recalls agricultural practices and Indian-white relations in the aftermath of the Black Hawk War. The remainder of the narrative primarily concerns the life Parkinson experienced in the California mining camps, where he describes the social structure, the system of justice, and prevailing land usage. After three years in California, Parkinson decided to return to Wisconsin to attend college, and a brief description of his homeward journey through Central America and New York completes his narrative. (English) (search this work)

Memories of the lonesome trail.
This booklet contains two narratives about the Lonesome Trail, a major route for trappers, woodsmen, and settlers which extended from St. Paul to the head of the lakes at Superior, Wisconsin. The Lonesome Trail later became a route of the Soo Line railroad, for which W.R.Callaway was General Passenger Agent when he wrote this booklet. Memories of the Lonesome Trail was intended as a promotional piece for train travel along the Lonesome Trail, and it is illustrated with scenic photographs. The booklet's first account is based on the oral reminiscences of a missionary's wife, Harriet Peet (Mrs. James Peet). In 1856, according to the narrative, Peet became the first white woman to traverse the Lonesome Trail. The Peets journeyed from New York to St. Louis and up the Mississippi to St. Paul to commence their trek, guided by a Presbyterian elder, the Rev. E.F. Ely. Mrs. Peet's account tells of brief encounters with Minnesota Indians and talks of gloom and cold along the way. She sang songs frequently to ward off fear and depression. The second narrative, "On the Old Stage Route,"first published in 1868 in the Gentlemen's Magazine, tells of the discomfort of making the same trip by stage twelve years later, with bad food, inadequate lodging for travelers, and dishonest agents. (English) (search this work)

Men of Progress: embracing biographical sketches of representative Michigan men: with an outline history of the state.
This book provides full-page biographies of men prominent in Michigan's business, professional, political, educational, and cultural life in the late nineteenth century. Although the entries are not in alphabetical order, there is an alphabetical index on pp. xi-xiv. The entries are preceded by an extensive selection of historical background materials under such headings as "The Civil Commonwealth," "The Military Record," "Educational," "Material Interests," "Religious Organizations," and "Miscellaneous" (which discusses the political parties, liquor traffic, including prohibition laws, and also provides tables). The religion section includes information about church doctrine and polity for mainline denominations, and the educational section summarizes major institutional issues and conflicts at the University of Michigan. (English) (search this work)

Men of progress. Wisconsin. A selected list of biographical sketches and portraits of the leaders in business, professional and official life. Together with short notes on the history and character of Wisconsin.
This large compendium features brief portraits and substantial biographies of the civic, political, and business leaders active in Wisconsin at the end of the nineteenth century. Some members of the clergy are also represented, as are a small number of musical and artistic figures and civil servants. The editors provide a historical introduction and an alphabetical index. (English) (search this work)

A Merry Briton in pioneer Wisconsin; a contemporary narrative reprinted from Life in the West: back-wood leaves and prairie flowers: rough sketches on the borders of the picturesque, the sublime, and ridiculous. Extracts from the note book of Morleigh in search of an estate, published in London in the year 1842.
This volume is the last five chapters of a longer travel account, Life in The West: Back-wood Leaves and Prairie Flowers: Rough Sketches on the Borders of the Picturesque, the Sublime, and Ridiculous. Extracts from the Notebooks of Morleigh in Search of an Estate (1842). The portion reprinted here describes the pseudonymous Morleigh's travels through the Wisconsin Territory, commencing at Racine and including Janesville, Madison, Mackinac, Whitewater, Mineral Point, Prairieville, Milwaukee, the Green Bay vicinity, and the Wolf River, in the summer of 1841. The tone is light and anecdotal. The author describes the consequences of land speculation and takes an interest in the experiences of several of the ethnic groups then immigrating into the territory. He also describes the plants and animals of the countryside. He observes Wisconsin's social life at the taverns, inns, and depots where a traveler was likely to pass the time, and finds the region to be politically lively and filled with partisan factions. Native Americans extend their hospitality to him, and he attends a gathering of Menominee assembled to collect federal annuities. (English) (search this work)

Michigan biographies, including Members of Congress, elective state officers, Justices of the Supreme Court, Members of the Michigan Legislature, Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, State Board of Agriculture and State Board of Education.
This is the second volume of a two-volume work containing brief biographies of members of Congress from Michigan, elective state officers, Justices of the state Supreme Court, members of the legislature, members of the Board of Regents at the University of Michigan, the state Board of Education, and the state Board of Agriculture. This volume covers individuals whose names begin with the letters L-Z. The work revises and expands an earlier publication, Early History of Michigan, with Biographies of State Officers, Members of Congress, Judges and Legislators. Much of the other information here was obtained from the Michigan Manual's several editions. Each entry gives the individual's place of birth, detailed educational background (including early schooling), and a history of his career. Genealogical and personal information occasionally supplements other data. (English) (search this work)

Michigan biographies, including Members of Congress, elective state officers, Justices of the Supreme Court, Members of the Michigan Legislature, Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, State Board of Agriculture and State Board of Education.
This is the first volume of a two-volume work containing brief biographies of members of Congress from Michigan, elective state officers, Justices of the state Supreme Court, members of the legislature, members of the Board of Regents at the University of Michigan, the state Board of Education, and the state Board of Agriculture. This volume covers individuals whose names begin with the letters A-K. The work revises and expands an earlier publication, Early History of Michigan, with Biographies of State Officers, Members of Congress, Judges and Legislators. Much of the other information here was obtained from the Michigan Manual's several editions. Each entry gives the individual's place of birth, detailed educational background (including early schooling), and a history of his career. Genealogical and personal information occasionally supplements other data. (English) (search this work)

Michigan state gazetteer and business directory for 1863/1864, embracing historical and descriptive sketches of all the cities, towns and villages throughout the state.
This compendium begins with a brief general history and description of Michigan's natural resources, and then gives the same information for each county and the Upper Peninsula. There is also a copy of the state constitution, a listing of Michigan post offices and an alphabetical listing of cities, towns, and villages, and the names of a number of local officials, business people, churches, associations, and educational institutions. Miscellaneous practical information is scattered throughout the compendium. A business directory offers a categorical listing of professions, trades, and entrepreneurial efforts. Statistics and tables accompany the text, and there are many illustrated advertisements. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota and Dacotah: in letters descriptive of a tour through the North-west, in the autumn of 1856. With information relative to public lands, and a table of statistics.
Christopher Columbus Andrews (1829-1922), future Civil War general, diplomat, and state official, wrote these twenty-six letters on a trip to the Minnesota and Dakota [Dacotah] territory during the fall of 1856. He traveled by rail as far as Chicago and Dunleith (Jo Daviess County, Illinois), continuing by steamship to St. Paul, and making his way by stagecoach to Crow Wing and St. Cloud before returning east. Each letter describes the trip or discusses the territory's economic and institutional development, governance, and opportunities for pioneers, land speculators, and entrepreneurs. Andrews devotes considerable attention to the Minnesota bar and also takes an interest in such topics as farming, lumbering, railroads, waterways, the potential of Lake Superior and the Red River valley, and efforts to induce the Chippewa [Ojibwe] to adopt a way of life rooted in European cultural traditions. The letters anticipate the establishment of Dakota as a separate territory and review current proposals for demarcating its boundaries. Andrews also comments on slavery and the era's racial attitudes. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota as it is in 1870. Its general resources and attractions ... with special descriptions of all its counties and towns.
Minnesota as it is in 1870 is a detailed piece of promotional literature intended to attract settlers to the state of Minnesota. It is typical of many such publications that circulated during this period of Minnesota's development. The book is divided into two parts. The first part covers the state as a whole, and is a positive, statistical overview of Minnesota. It offers description and data such as the geographical size of the state, the population and national background of its inhabitants, the weather and climate benefits for persons suffering from consumption (tuberculosis), a theme repeated in other promotional works, and information about agricultural advances. This section also cites increased livestock production, cultivated land, developed forest industries and resources, education, and commercial promise as inducements to immigrants. The second part of the book provides a description of each county that had been established in Minnesota by 1870. (English) (search this work)

The Minnesota guide. A handbook of information for the travelers, pleasure seekers and immigrants.
This is the 1869 version of an annual publication designed promote the state of Minnesota and to provide information about it to prospective settlers. The Minnesota Guide describes the history and geography of the state; its climate and natural resources; its size and population growth; its agricultural production and the processes for obtaining land; its principal towns and sites; and its educational system. Arranged according to major railroad and steamship routes, this booklet also includes many illustrated advertisements for local goods and services. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota: its advantages to settlers, 1869. Being a brief synopsis of its history and progress, climate, soil, agricultural and manufacturing facilities, commercial capacities, and social status; its lakes, rivers and railroads; homestead and exemption laws; embracing a concise treatise on its climatology, in a hygienic and sanitary point of view.
This book was published by the State of Minnesota and was intended to attract settlers. Among the attractions it promotes are the State's agricultural and manufacturing resources and production, climate and its healthful benefits, transportation network, social conditions, natural beauty, and abundance of available land for homesteading. There are descriptions of railroad routes. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota; its character and climate.
This panegyric extols the beauty, abundant natural resources, and health- restoring environment of Minnesota, describing the state's regions and its many tourist attractions. It is directed towards those suffering from consumption (tuberculosis) and helps to explain why people in the nineteenth century regarded Minnesota's dry climate as a possible cure for that disease. The author also discusses methods of treating consumption through diet and clothing, and other locales of interest to sufferers, such as Florida, Nassau, and California. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota pioneer sketches; from the personal recollections and observations of a pioneer resident.
At the age of twelve, Frank G. O'Brien (1843-1920) moved from Maine to Minnesota with his father and siblings, settling in Anoka County in 1855. After a difficult winter, the family moved to St. Anthony's Falls where O'Brien spent his adolescence combining a variety of manual and entrepreneurial jobs with education. Minnesota Pioneer Sketches is a collection of newspaper feature articles written by O'Brien that are here published in book form. The articles describe his own youth as well as notable events during the second half of the nineteenth century in Minnesota. He discusses farming, transportation, the U.S. mail, politics, Indians, the Civil War, religious practices, lumber camps, education, and other topics associated with pioneer life and the growth of the state. (English) (search this work)

Minnesota, the empire state of the new North-west, the commercial, manufacturing and geographical centre of the American continent. Pub. by the Board of immigration for the state of Minnesota ... Secretary: John W. Bond.
This 1878 pamphlet addresses itself to laboring and landless men, as well as to those of moderate means, who are seeking to escape the "tyrannies and thankless toil of the old world" and the overcrowded conditions and limited opportunities of regions in the eastern United States. It praises Minnesota's healthful climate and its network of railroads, its mineral resources, educational facilities, and demonstrated potential for agricultural production. There is specific information about the amount and location of public lands as well as the costs involved in homesteading. At the front of the book is a map of Minnesota townships and railroad routes. (English) (search this work)

Mostly Mississippi, by Harold Speakman, with a number of drawings by Russell Lindsay Speakman and the author.
Harold Speakman (1888-1928), a writer and visual artist, journeyed the Mississippi from its Minnesota headwaters to New Orleans by canoe and on a twenty-foot house boat in the company of his wife, Frances "Russell" Lindsay Speakman. The Speakmans made the 2,450-mile trip shortly after their marriage in July 5, 1925. The result was this work, Speakman's only full-scale American travel narrative, though he had earlier written accounts of travel in China, Palestine, and Ireland. Illustrated by Speakman's paintings and sketches and his wife's drawings, the book is an idyllic tour of the American heartland. It features lyrical descriptions of encounters with archetypical characters, landscapes, and experiences reflecting life along the river. The Speakmans met lumberjacks in northern Minnesota and Mormons at Nauvoo, as well as roustabouts, hoboes, farmers, drifters, Southern grandees, Native Americans, collegians thirsting for real life experiences, and convicts. They also encountered Padraic Colum, the Irish poet, then on tour; Laura Frazer, the inspiration for Mark Twain's Becky Thatcher; and a stereotypical "lady from Dubuque"-- a symbol of American provincialism for 1920s New Yorkerreaders. Historical anecdotes and local legends weave into the narrative, which also explores the deepening emotional bond between the newly married couple. (English) (search this work)

Myself / by John R. Commons.
John Rogers Commons (1862-1945) was an influential economist, reformer, and labor historian. Born in Hollandsburg, Ohio, Commons grew up on the Indiana-Ohio border, where his early work as a printer kindled his interest in labor issues. He attended Oberlin College and went on to study economics at Johns Hopkins, subsequently embarking upon a career of research, public policy development, and teaching. Among his labor history works were the ten- volume Documentary History of American Industrial Society (1910-11) and the three-volume History of Labor in the United States (1918-35). In his autobiography, Commons classifies himself as both a pragmatist and a Progressive. He collaborated closely with Wisconsin's governor and U.S. senator Robert La Follette, Sr., until 1917, when he opposed La Follette's anti-war position. He drafted innovative legislation on issues such as civil service reform, worker's compensation, and utility regulation. He championed improved safety standards and unemployment benefits for workers, believing that financial support for them should come from corporations. He also advocated government mediation among industry, labor, and other competing interest groups. In the 1920s, Commons's legislative initiatives on social welfare and federal economic coordination anticipated New Deal legislation. Commons also exerted long- term influence through his students, many of whom went on to occupy key academic, research, and policy positions. Today, he is remembered chiefly as the founder of modern American labor history. (English) (search this work)

Narrative journal of travels from Detroit northwest through the great chain of American lakes to the sources of the Mississippi River in the year 1820.
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864) was an explorer, Indian agent, and early ethnologist of Native American culture who joined an expedition organized by Governor Cass of Michigan in 1819. Its purpose was to locate the Mississippi River's sources, to explore the Great Lakes region, and to describe its significant topographical features, natural history, and mineral wealth. Schoolcraft joined the expedition as a mineralogist, and this is the journal of his participation. He describes his preliminary journey from New York to Detroit, where the expedition embarks for Michilimackinac and presses on to Sault de Ste. Marie and Fond du Lac. Eventually the explorers locate Lake Itasca in Minnesota, where the Mississippi originates. Schoolcraft also highlights St. Peter's, Prairie du Chien, the lead mines at Dubuque, and Green Bay, and devotes a whole chapter to the Ontagenon River and its nearby copper mines. His journal blends narrative with historical, ethnographic and statistical information. (English) (search this work)

Narrative of an expedition through the upper Mississippi to Itasca Lake, the actual source of this river; embracing an exploratory trip through the St. Croix and Burntwood (or Broule) Rivers, in 1832.
This is an account by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864) of his discovery of the Mississippi River's source, Lake Itasca, in 1832. Schoolcraft was an Indian agent for the region, and he assembled an expeditionary party of thirty, including Ozawindib (an Ojibway guide and interpreter), an army officer, a surgeon, a geologist, and interpreter, and a missionary. They set out with instructions from Secretary of War Lewis Cass to effect a permanent peace among the region's Native Americans, persuade them to be vaccinated against smallpox, acquire demographic and scientific information, and establish definitively the origin of the Mississippi. Expedition Through the Upper Mississippi contains anecdotes and observations about the beliefs, customs, and history of the Chippewa [Ojibway] as well as the Sioux [Dakota], the Fox [Mesquakie], the Sauk, the Menominee, the Mandans, and various other Native American groups. The narrative proceeds chronologically along the route the expedition followed, with detailed descriptions of geographical features. This volume also includes a short account of a trip along the St. Croix and Burntwood (Brule) River, and has an appendix containing statistical and linguistic data, a list of shells collected by Schoolcraft in the West and Northwestern territories, official reports, a speech by six Chippewa chiefs about the war delivered at Michilimackinac in July 1833, and a discussion of the Upper Mississippi's lead-mining country. (English) (search this work)

Narrative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeck, Lake of the Woods, &c. &c. performed in the year 1823, by order of the Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Secretary of war, under the command of Stephen H. Long, Major U.S.T.E. Volume 1. Comp. from the notes of Major Long, Messrs. Say, Keating, and Calhoun.
William Hypolitus Keating (1799-1840), a professor of mineralogy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania (1822-1828), compiled this two-volume account of a scientific expedition in 1823 under the auspices of President Monroe's War Department. The expedition encompassed the Minnesota River, Red River, Lake Winnepeg, Lake of the Woods, and Lake Superior. Keating used his own notes as well as those of the other scientists who traveled with him. These included James Colhoun, astronomer, assistant topographer, and historical authority; Thomas Say, zoologist and acting botanist with a knowledge of "matter relating to Indians;" and Major Stephen Long of the United States Topographical Engineers, commander, chief topographer, and author of additional descriptive and historical material. Although Americans and Europeans had reached the area before, Keating considered his expedition to be the first to use scientific equipment and knowledge to describe and evaluate the region's natural resources. Volume 1 provides detail about the journey west and the ensuing voyage up the Mississippi, from Prairie du Chien to the point just below St. Anthony's Falls where the travelers entered the Minnesota and proceeded to Big Stone and Traverse Lakes. The expedition set forth from Philadelphia and journeyed via Hagerstown and Cumberland to Wheeling, traversing Ohio from Zanesville to Columbus and, from there, on to Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn. At that point, departing from their planned itinerary, they headed across the prairies to Fort Crawford and Prairie du Chien. One of the expedition's goals was to report on the Native American peoples populating the areas through which they traveled. The narrative pays considerable attention to mounds, fortifications, and other Indian antiquities as well as to the cultural practices, beliefs, health, and physical attributes of the several tribes encountered. Descriptions of the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, Menomone [Menominee], Winnebago, and Dacota [Sioux] provide insights about the observers as well as the peoples observed. (English) (search this work)

Narrative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeck, Lake of the Woods, &c. &c. performed in the year 1823, by order of the Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under the command of Stephen H. Long, Major U.S.T.E. Volume 2. Comp. from the notes of Major Long, Messrs. Say, Keating, and Calhoun.
William Hypolitus Keating (1799-1840), a professor of mineralogy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania (1822-1828), compiled this two-volume account of a scientific expedition in 1823 under the auspices of President Monroe's War Department. The expedition encompassed the Minnesota River, Red River, Lake Winnepeg, Lake of the Woods, and Lake Superior. Keating used his own notes as well as those of the other scientists who traveled with him. These included James Colhoun, astronomer, assistant topographer, and historical authority; Thomas Say, zoologist and acting botanist with a knowledge of "matter relating to Indians;" and Major Stephen Long of the United States Topographical Engineers, commander, chief topographer, and author of additional descriptive and historical material. Although Americans and Europeans had reached the area before, Keating considered his expedition to be the first to use scientific equipment and knowledge to describe and evaluate the region's natural resources. Volume 2 chronicles the journey from Lake Traverse up the Red River to Lake Winnipeg [Winnepeek] and down the Winnipeg River to Lake of the Woods. From there, the expedition followed Rainy River to Rainy Lake, and Lac La Croix over to Lake Superior, Sault Saint Marie [Sault de St. Marie], and Mackinac [Mackinaw], which is where the narrative ends. A chapter concerns the cultural practices, beliefs, health, and physical attributes of the Chippewa (Ojibwe), and material on other Native Americans, particularly the Dacota [Sioux], appears elsewhere. Chapter 5 was written by Major Long, and points out significant hydrographical and topographical features of the country the expedition traversed. Long also evaluates Native Americans' complex relations with the United States and its settlers. The book includes several appendices on natural history. Thomas Say classifies zoological materials and observations, and Lewis de Schweinitz contributes a catalogue of the plant specimens Say collected along the way. James Colhoun presents astronomical data, and Joseph Lovell, the U.S. Surgeon-General, compares climate readings at several American military outposts. The volume concludes with a comparative list of Native American vocabularies. (English) (search this work)

Narrative of Sojourner Truth; a bondswoman of olden time, emancipated by the New York Legislature in the early part of the present century; with a history of her labors and correspondence drawn from her “Book of life.”.
Sojourner Truth (1795-1883) was originally a Dutch-speaking slave in Hurley, New York (Ulster County) who became one of the nineteenth century's most eloquent voices for the causes of anti-slavery and women's rights. This work includes several important texts about her life, beginning with a dictated autobiography. In it, she tells of her early life in slavery and how she did not officially achieve freedom until 1827, under New York State's Anti- Slavery Act. The children she bore as a slave were taken from her, and it was her successful efforts to reclaim her son, Peter, who had been illegally sold out of state, that brought her into contact with anti-slavery advocates. Moving to New York City, she became involved in Evangelical religious and moral reform activities and began preaching at camp-meetings around the city. By 1832, she had come under the influence of the self-styled utopian prophet, Matthias, whom she helped to support with her savings and labor. In 1843, after Matthias's experimental community had failed, Truth left New York and traveled through Long Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, singing and speaking out about public and religious issues. She lived for a time at the utopian Northampton Association of Education and Industry in Florence, Massachusetts, and after it disbanded in 1846, she dictated this account of her life's story to help purchase a home there. The narrative ends with her 1849 visit to New York to see her daughter and John Dumont, her former master, who finally acknowledges the evils of slavery. The Book of Lifeamplifies Truth's story with materials emphasizing her anti-slavery and women's-rights activism. Around 1857, she moved to Battle Creek, Michigan, though after the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), she worked in Washington as a counselor and educator for former slaves through the Freedman's Relief Association and the Freedmen's Hospital. She also crusaded for equal treatment for black and white passengers on local street cars. In 1874, she returned to Battle Creek to nurse an ill grandson, and after his death a year later, her own health irreversibly declined. Her famous "Ain't I a Woman?" speech, addressed to the Woman's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio, in 1851, is also included here in a transcription by Mrs. Frances D. Gage. (English) (search this work)

A new home--who'll follow? or, Glimpses of western life.
Caroline Matilda (Stansbury) Kirkland (1801-1864) was a middle-class white woman with a literary bent who moved with her husband and children to the woods of Michigan in the mid-1830s to settle a newly-planned village. In A New Home--Who'll Follow?(1855), first published in 1839, she offers what she claims to be "an honest portraiture of rural life in a new country" (p. 5). Through a series of vignettes and anecdotes strung loosely into a narrative, Kirkland brings to life the social and material culture of a community on what was perceived as the frontier, presenting her experiences with a sense of ironic amusement. She reveals much about social life, social roles and behavior, especially among women. She describes the business of settlement, including how land was purchased and towns planned, and the haste, confusion, speculation and fraud attendant on such transactions. She comments on the social shifts pioneer life made possible, especially the egalitarianism which poorer migrants claimed as their right in new settlements, and the tensions that resulted as migrants from wealthier classes struggled to maintain and adapt the ways of status and culture they had formerly known. Her narrative also dwells on the details of domestic life, showing how houses were constructed and furnished, depicting the difficulties of housekeeping in crudely-built settlements, and the physical challenges of disease, accidents, bad roads, and the exhausting labor of deforestation and new farming. For all its light-hearted tone, Kirkland's book suggests much about how human communities bound together by neighborhood and necessity began to coalesce in a challenging and drastically changing land. (English) (search this work)

Nobody owns us; the story of Joe Gilbert, midwestern rebel.
This laudatory biography of Joseph Gilbert, an outspoken British-American leader of the cooperative movement in the Midwest, is based on interviews, newspapers and magazine articles, and transcripts of court proceedings during Gilbert's trials for sedition during the years immediately following World War I. Born in London in 1865, Gilbert was raised in Wolverley, Worcestershire by a conservative, working-class aunt and uncle. Seeking education and control over his life, Joe emigrated to the Philadelphia area where he held several jobs designing carpets. After a few years' study, Joe became a lawyer. Dissatisfied with a successful but unchallenging career, he relocated to Seattle with his wife, Julie, where he became a socialist activist, editor, and organizer. Joe moved from state to state, and his skills led not only to socialist organizing but also to remunerative positions with various chambers of commerce and retail organizations. Eventually, he became a leader with the Nonpartisan League, established in 1915 to increase political representation for farmers, to demand state ownership of the major agricultural processing facilities, and to advocate federal ownership of the nation's railroads. In a case that went all the way to the Supreme Court, Gilbert was convicted of sedition in December 1920, and served the following year in the Red Wing, Minnesota jail. After his release, Gilbert edited a variety of small newspapers and involved himself with the Northern States Cooperative League. Later, he served as Midland Cooperative Wholesale's chief spokesperson, editor, and policymaker until he began to lose his vision in 1935. His home was in Minneapolis at the time this book was written. (English) (search this work)

Northern Wisconsin, a hand-book for the homeseeker.
This guide, compiled under the direction of the Dean of the College of Agriculture at the University of Wisconsin, champions the economic promise of Wisconsin's northern counties for potential settlers in the 1890s. Profusely illustrated with photographs, charts, statistical lists, and maps, it discusses soil, climate, forest and water resources, land availability, and principal economic activities, with special emphasis on agricultural crops ( grains and grasses, root crops, etc.) and animal husbandry. Potato culture, sheep farming, swine breeding, and the dairy industry have chapters of their own. The book also provides capsule biographies of successful settlers from a variety of cultural and occupational backgrounds, along with resources for finding additional information. (English) (search this work)

Notable men of Wisconsin.
This book is a photographic roster of several hundred of Wisconsin's most prominent male citizens at the time of publication in 1902. The oval head-portraits are displayed four to a page, accompanied by the subject's name, occupation (or distinguishing achievement), and place of business; they are loosely grouped by occupational type. Though many of those represented are lawyers, there are also a number of manufacturers, as well as physicians, bankers, judges, politicians, civil servants, insurance and real-estate executives, journalists, architects, military officers, clergy, educators, and individuals involved in such occupations as lumbering, farming, retail, other areas of business, and the arts. An introduction celebrates the state's prosperity, and there is an index of names. (English) (search this work)

Old rail fence corners; the A. B. C.'s of Minnesota history.
This is an anthology of anecdotes about the Minnesota frontier, dating primarily from the 1840s and 1850s. The material seems to have been collected directly from original settlers who were still alive in the early twentieth century. There are abundant descriptions of early logging operations, agriculture, building practices, plagues, infestations, flora and fauna, and floods. Accounts of local culture range from descriptions of Indian-white relations to boarding-house life, foodways, dances and other festivities. Several settlers were attracted to Minnesota for the celebrated health of its climate; others recall its life-threatening cold. (English) (search this work)

Our pioneer days in Minnesota.
Gertrude Vandergon wrote her reminiscences in a series of lengthy letters addressed to her children. It is difficult to date these letters accurately because of conflicting information in the preface and epilogue, but she seems to have begun them around 1940 when she was eighty years old. In 1867 Vandergon emigrated from Amsterdam, Holland, to Silver Creek, in Wayne County, Minnesota with her family and several other members of the Reformed Church. These were prosperous mercantile and professional families lured by the inaccurate representations of a land agent and anxious to provide broader opportunities for their offspring. Vandergon's letters initially describe disappointed hopes and diminished expectations. Eventually, the author's family learned to cope with long winters, hoards of insects, and the demands of an unfamiliar environment. As her parents began to cooperate and interact with their neighbors, they acquired the skills they needed to prosper as farmers. The Atlantic crossing receives considerable attention here as do events such as births, marriages, and deaths. The author describes in considerable detail the round of rural tasks, traditional and innovative, that she and her family learned in their struggle to survive. (English) (search this work)

Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on the American frontiers: with brief notices of passing events, facts, and opinions, A. D. 1812 to A. D. 1842.
This is the autobiographical account of an explorer, government administrator, and scholar whose researches into the language and customs of the Chippewa and other Native American peoples of the Great Lakes region are considered milestones in nineteenth-century ethnography. After a childhood in Hamilton, New York, Schoolcraft gained attention for the reports and journals he wrote on trips west to explore mineral deposits in Arkansas, Missouri, and the old Northwest. Later, he joined the Cass expedition to the Lake Superior region, where he served as an Indian agent in St. Mary (Sault Ste. Marie) from 1822 to 1836. During that time, he continued to make regular exploratory journeys. On one of these, in 1832, he located the Mississippi River's source at Lake Itasca, Minnesota. From 1836 to 1841, Schoolcraft served as Michigan's superintendent of Indian Affairs and helped to bring about a treaty with the Ojibwa (1836), who as a result relinquished their claims to most of northern Michigan. Schoolcraft's memoirs are noteworthy for their detailed geographic, geological, political, military, folkloric, historical, and ethnographic information. Married to a woman of Native American background, he was sympathetic to certain aspects of the Indian societies he encountered. Nevertheless, he saw the sweep of new settlers into Indian lands as inevitable, and accepted as necessary the removal of Native peoples beyond the advancing boundaries of the Unites States. Schoolcraft believed that soldiers, diplomats, federal officials, and missionaries could do their jobs more effectively if they learned native languages and understood Indian customs. These motives, along with his literary aspirations, gave rise to his explorations of Indian cultural life. He discusses Indian myths and legends at length and talks about how he transformed them into his own Algic Researches (1839), the work that inspired Longfellow's "Hiawatha." Schoolcraft also corresponded or visited with Washington Irving, Thomas Jefferson, Albert Gallatin, and many of the era's other leading intellectuals, and details his conversations with them. (English) (search this work)

Petticoat surgeon.
This is the autobiography of a distinguished Michigan native who helped to establish a place for women in medicine. Bertha Van Hoosen was born in 1863 to a Dutch Canadian father and a third-generation Michigan mother on a farm near the small town of Rochester. The first chapters of Petticoat Surgeon are full of insights into educational opportunities and farm life in late nineteenth-century Michigan. After college and medical school at the University of Michigan, Van Hoosen spent the early part of her career at the Women's Hospital in Detroit, the Kalamazoo State Hospital, and the New England Hospital for Women and Children, ultimately settling in Chicago to develop her practice in obstetrics and gynecology. Committed to teaching medicine and to delivering medical service to the poor, Van Hoosen taught anatomy and embryology at the Northwestern University Women's Medical School and worked at the Columbia Dispensary. She eventually became an eminent physician, serving as the Chief of Staff of the Women and Children's Hospital and as a member of Cook County Hospital's gynecological staff. She ran weekly surgical clinics at the University of Illinois College of Medicine and served as Head and Professor of Obstetrics at Loyola University. The last few chapters of Petticoat Surgeon describe her encounters with physicians in Europe and Asia. Her autobiography also highlights many medical issues debated at the turn of the century: care for unwed mothers, anesthesia for childbirth, discrimination against female doctors, and sex education in the public schools. Van Hoosen was a strong advocate of sex education and worked with the Chicago Woman's Club to have it included in the city's public school curriculum. (English) (search this work)

Pioneer and political reminiscences.
Nils Pederson Haugen (b. 1849) was a distinguished Norwegian-American who emigrated with his Lutheran family to the Rush River Settlement in Pierce County, Wisconsin, in 1855. Haugen's autobiography describes his early work as a logger and factory hand, followed by education at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, and Hinckley's Military Academy at River Falls, Wisconsin from 1868-1872. He graduated from law school at the University of Michigan in 1874, and supported himself as a teacher and court reporter until his election as a Republican to the Wisconsin state assembly in 1878. In 1881, he was elected Railroad Commissioner for the state, and served in the U.S. Congress between 1887 and 1895. Returning to River Falls, he practiced law for six years before being appointed to the state's tax commission, where he served from 1901 to 1921, a critical period during which Wisconsin developed ideas and legislation defining government's taxing and regulating powers. Haugen discusses tax issues in detail, and provides insights into the gubernatorial terms of La Follette, Davidson, and McGovern. (English) (search this work)

Pioneer recollections; semi-historic side lights on the early days of Lansing.
This little book contains the author's recollections of the early settlement and development of Lansing, Michigan, particularly during the late 1840s and early 1850s. Mevis's family moved there (1847) as it was being laid out as the future state capitol. Much of Pioneer Recollections is devoted to tales and anecdotes about pioneer life in Lansing and elsewhere. As a teenager, Mevis was a companion of members of the Okemos tribe of Indians, and he describes their mode of hunting deer and a small, dug-out canoe that the chief gave him. In addition to farm chores, serving as town crier, and working as a "printer's devil" at the local newspaper, Mevis sold refreshments at a tent show (McFarland's Pavilion Theater) and engaged in many entrepreneurial activities, which leads him to reminisce about Lansing's first businessmen. He also enjoyed sleigh rides, dancing parties, corn husking, logging bees, holiday celebrations, and many outdoor activities including hunting, fishing, searching for snakes, making maple sugar, and gathering greens, fruits, and wildflowers. Mevis includes a list of Lansing's early inhabitants, with photographs of some of the men. (English) (search this work)

Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Collection Overview. (English) (search this work)

A preliminary railroad survey in Wisconsin, 1857.
Drawing on the author's diary, this narrative chronicles Andrew McFarland Davis's experiences as a member of an 1857 surveying expedition for a projected line of the La Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad from Portage, Wisconsin, to Lake Pepin. Davis himself was in charge of the expedition's level. From the camp near Silver Lake where it set out at the end of March, the team proceeded through Marquette, Waushara, Adams, Wood, Clark, Eau Claire, Chippewa, and Dunn Counties, changing the terminus for the proposed line as it went, and reconnoitering along the headwaters of the Red Cedar River with another survey team working from the other end of the line. On Tuesday, August 4, Davis's team took a keelboat from Eau Claire to Reed's Landing, and from there, a steamer to Prairie du Chien. The expedition reached its final destination on August 7, after more than four months of work. Davis describes the changing terrain as well as some of the journey's mishaps and discomforts, such as encounters with mosquitoes and gnats that seriously impeded his work. The book includes a map tracing the expedition's route. (English) (search this work)

Progressive men of Minnesota. Biographical sketches and portraits of the leaders in business, politics and the professions; together with an historical and descriptive sketch of the state.
Published by The Minneapolis Journal, this 1897 work offers brief biographical sketches of men from business, politics, and other professions who were considered by the Journal to have taken leading roles in the development of Minnesota. The book also includes historical and descriptive sketches of the state. (English) (search this work)

Recollections of a long life, 1829-1915, by Isaac Stephenson.
Born in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Isaac Stephenson (1829-1918) followed his interests as a lumberman, sailor, and entrepreneur to Bangor, Maine and, later, to the northern woods of Wisconsin. In 1858, he purchased a one-quarter interest in the North Ludington Lumber Company in Marinette and went on to become that community's leading citizen. He founded the Stephenson National Bank, donated the Stephenson Public Library, developed the town's retail and commercial district, and used his involvement in local politics as a springboard for state and national office. Stephenson served in the Wisconsin State Assembly (1866-1868), as a U.S. Representative from Wisconsin (1883-1889), and also as a U.S. Senator from that same state (1907-1915). An active participant in the "Half-Breed" faction of Wisconsin's Republican party that supported Huagen and La Follette in their races for the governorship, he began publishing the Free Press of Milwaukee in 1901 as a means of conveying their reform-minded views to the public. In the Senate, La Follette and Stephenson soon found themselves differing over issues of patronage and efforts to eliminate graft and purify the political process. Stephenson had little interest in a national political agenda. Although much of his autobiography deals with his civic and political life, its first half provides inside perspectives on many aspects of the logging industry and life in the logging camps. There is also considerable information on local Native American groups, especially the Menominee, and the folklife of occupational and family groups in the rapidly developing areas of the Upper Midwest. (English) (search this work)

Recollections of an immigrant.
This book recounts the immigration experience of a prominent Minneapolis lawyer who served as a local elected official (Judge of Probate) and led an active civic life. Ueland was originally a Norwegian from the Stavanger region. Son of a farmer and politician, he recalls many of the folk customs of his native village community. He left for America in 1871 in late adolescence and traveled west by train. While learning English, he supported himself by working in saw-mills, lumber-yards, and on farms as an agricultural laborer. In those early years, he lived in Rushford and Farmington as well as Minneapolis. Ueland's legal practice developed from his activities as a middleman and mediator between Norwegian-Americans and the larger American community. He was an avid participant in literary and fine arts societies, maintaining interest in ethnic matters and becoming increasingly involved with the city at large. Ueland also spends several chapters discussing Lutheran doctrine and church controversies. He concludes with his return visit to the land of his birth. (English) (search this work)

Reminiscences, memoirs, and lectures of Monsignor A. Ravoux, V. G.
Monsignor Augustin Ravoux (1815-1906) emigrated from France in 1838, responding to the plea of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Dubuque, Iowa, for missionaries among the Indians. His first mission was at Prairie du Chien, where he remained until he began ministering to the Sioux [Dakota] Indians in 1841. During his time with the Sioux, 1841-1844, he became proficient in their language and developed a permanent mission at Little Prairie (now Chaska). Between 1844 and 1851, Ravoux also ministered to communities at Mendota, St. Paul, Lake Pipin, and St. Croix. Ravoux divides his book into three sections: reminiscences and memoirs comprise the first; lectures he delivered comprise the second; and miscellaneous letters, lectures, and essays (usually written by other authors) comprise the third. The reminiscences and memoirs cover the period from 1838-1862 and conclude with his ministry to Sioux condemned to death for their part in the 1862 Sioux uprising. (English) (search this work)

Reminiscences of a pioneer days in St. Paul.
Frank Moore, born in 1843, moved to Minnesota from Pennsylvania when he was fifteen years old. Shortly after arriving in St. Paul, Moore was employed by The Minnesotian, a paper owned and managed by his brother, George W. Moore. After a variety of jobs there he rose to become superintendent of the composing room, a position he held for more than forty years. In 1908, he celebrated his fiftieth year with the Pioneer Press, which had merged with and renamed the Minnesotian. Moore recounts life in Minnesota from the late 1850s through the close of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln. He relates anecdotes from the early days of newspapers in St. Paul, especially the competition among the papers to be the first out with the "telegraph" news, and offers a complete account of the 1862 Sioux uprising from a settler's perspective. Moore reminisces on the development of St. Paul as an urban center, with her fire companies and amusement houses [theaters], where, he recalls, Dan Emmett, the composer of the song "Dixie," had a minstrel company in the late 1850s. There is a chapter listing territorial printers and editors of Minnesota. Two other chapters deal with exploits of Minnesota units in Civil War battles: the Second Minnesota Regiment's conspicuous actions at the battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky, and the First Minnesota battery's contributions to the Union victory at the Battle of Pittsburg Landing (Shiloh) in Tennessee. One of the last chapters details the reaction of some St. Paulites to the assassination of President Lincoln. (English) (search this work)

Reminiscences of a pioneer missionary.
The author of these memoirs, Chrysostom Verwyst, was an immigrant from North Brabant, Holland, who arrived in Boston in 1848 at the age of seven. His family had migrated with a group of fellow Catholics who had heard about the lands available in Wisconsin from a missionary priest returned home for a visit; however, the family was stranded in Boston without the funds to complete the trip. Almost half of Verwyst's narrative is taken up with the tale of how his family made its way to Hollandtown, Wisconsin, and carved a farm out of the woods and meadows of Brown County. These memoirs contain accounts of festive celebrations, costumes, agricultural practices, and local community life. Verwyst became a Catholic priest, attending seminary near Milwaukee during the Civil War. He served several Wisconsin communities during the second half of the nineteenth century: New London, Keshena, Hudson and environs, Seneca, Bayfield and La Pointe, Duluth and Superior. After joining the Franciscan order in 1883, Verwyst continued to attend communities in the Bayfield and Ashland areas. He also played a key role in establishing the Catholic Church as an active institutional presence in Washburn and Hurley. Following a three-year sojourn in St. Louis and Los Angeles, Verwyst returned to Ashland to attend missions in the Chippewa and St. Croix country. Finally, retiring to Bayfield, Verwyst spent his last years studying and composing works in the Chippewa language. The second part of his narrative examines not only his own life but the accomplishments of Catholic missionaries working among the diverse populations of northern Wisconsin. (English) (search this work)

Reminiscences; the story of an emigrant. (English) (search this work)

Sketches of Minnesota, the New England of the West. With incidents of travel in that territory during the summer of 1849.
Beginning with a historical and geographical overview, this traveler's account of the newly formed Minnesota Territory provides practical information for readers interested in relocating to the region. Seymour describes "everything" in Minnesota as "in a crude state, or process of formation," but compares its scenery, pine forests, and extensive waterpower to New England. He also notes that both regions are at a northern latitude and have a "healthy climate" conducive to habits of "industry and enterprise." Sketches of Minnesota has detailed if generally unfavorable things to say about Native American religious practices and intertribal relations. It also discusses life at various missionary and trading stations, and Seymour's exploration of both Fountain and Carver's Caves, and gives detailed information about waterways, quality of water, steamboats, and lodging for travelers. A foldout map is included. (English) (search this work)

Souvenir. National grange in Michigan;.
This souvenir booklet was published in conjunction with a meeting of the National Grange in Michigan. It not only contains brief histories of the National Grange, the Michigan state grange, and the local chapter in Lansing, but provides extensive information on the State of Michigan, including its natural resources (with a geological map), manufacturing and agricultural activities; government (with biographies of the major state officials), and educational resources and facilities. There is also a long article on the beet sugar industry, with special reference to Michigan's influence and continuing involvement in it. The booklet is extensively illustrated with photographs and advertisements. (English) (search this work)

The standard guide; Mackinac Island and northern lake resorts.
This is a late nineteenth-century travel guide largely aimed at the recreational traveler. Descriptions of destinations from Mackinac Island to Traverse City and Omena emphasize their scenic and historical interest. There are several photographs of tourist attractions, as well as picturesque views associated with the sites described; these range from images of Chippewa netting whitefish near Sault Ste. Marie to the Imperial Hotel in Petoskey. In the entry for St. Ignace, photographs of pertinent art work from outside the area accompany historical information about Father Jacques Marquette. Chicago and Battle Creek are also described in glowing terms, and one entry is devoted to the English fur trader, Alexander Henry. Advertisements for several hotels and steamship lines appear at both the beginning and end of this pamphlet. (English) (search this work)

The story of a pioneer, by Anna Howard Shaw ... with the collaboration of Elizabeth Jordan; illustrated from photographs.
This autobiography follows the life of Anna Shaw (1847-1919) from her birth in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England through her presidency of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Shaw immigrated with her genteel but financially pressed family to America in 1851. They settled first in New Bedford and then in Lawrence, Massachusetts, finally migrating in 1859 to a pioneer farmstead in northern Michigan, where Anna performed much of the subsistence labor during her father's long absences. The first part of her narrative emphasizes her efforts to gain an education and take up a ministerial career. After two years at Albion College, she attended Boston Theological School (1876-1878) and accepted a pastorate in East Dennis, Cape Cod, after graduation; later she also took temporary charge of the Congregational Church in Dennis. After her ordination had been blocked by members of the New England Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church opposed to ordaining women, Shaw was ordained by the 1880 Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church in Tarrytown, N.Y. She continued to serve her congregations while simultaneously attending Boston University Medical School, where she received a diploma in 1885. Inspired by leaders of the suffrage and temperance movements, Shaw resigned from her parishes in 1885 to become a lecturer for the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association. After touring the country in a series of freelance speaking engagements, she accepted Francis Willard's invitation to head the Franchise Department of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union from 1888 to 1892. With the encouragement of Susan B. Anthony, her close friend and mentor, Shaw devoted increasing amounts of time to the work of the National Woman Suffrage Association and, in 1891, became national lecturer for the newly- created National American Woman Suffrage Association. From 1892 to 1904 she was vice-president of this organization and served as its president from 1905 through 1915. In addition to eyewitness observations on the developing suffrage movement, Shaw provides extensive descriptions of frontier life and the rigors of traveling the country as a female lecturer. She also reminisces about reform-minded luminaries such as Julia Ward Howe and John Greenleaf Whittier, and includes anecdotes about her experiences in Europe. (English) (search this work)

The story of my boyhood and youth, by John Muir; with illustrations from sketches by the author.
John Muir (1838-1914), whose writings about the natural world have shaped the conservation and environmental movements for more than a century, wrote this autobiographical account near the end of his life about his childhood in Dunbar, Scotland, his immigration to America (1849), his adolescence on a pioneer farmstead near Kingston, Wisconsin, and his student years at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The Story of My Boyhood and Youth reveals the evolution of Muir's scientific curiosity and the beginnings of his reverential attitude towards nature. Treating his encounters with wildlife as high adventure, he gives especially informed attention to bird life in both Scotland and Wisconsin. (English) (search this work)

The story of my childhood, written for my children.
This brief autobiography written for the author's children and illustrated with photographs pays particular attention to children's activities and education in mid- nineteenth-century Minnesota. George describes the journey her family made when she was an infant from Indiana to Le Sueur County, Minnesota, and reminisces about her childhood in the villages of Ottawa and Le Sueur, where her father became a partner in a family-owned sawmill. After the Sioux uprising in 1862, in which many settlers in the region were killed, the family moved to Rapidan, in Blue Earth County (south of Mankato), onto land made available by the forced removal of the Winnebago Indians. In the course of the book George describes how sawmills of the time operated, provides information about local animals and plants, and recalls her early experiences with Indians. (English) (search this work)

A summer holiday; a brief description of some of the more popular summer resorts in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota, and the routes by which they can be reached.
This promotional pamphlet provides brief descriptions of popular tourist destinations along the Upper Midwestern route of the Chicago and North-Western Railway in 1884. The Michigan communities of Escabana, Gogebic, Marquette, and Menominee are included, as are the Minnesota towns of Stillwater, Lake Madison, and Waseca. The information in the entries is not always consistent, but usually includes sites of interest, hotels and rooming houses (with occasional prices), and commentary on the health-restoring properties of the local air and water. A "How To Get There" section accompanying each entry alerts the reader to the number of trains going to a particular place as well as the best routes to travel. Engravings and a map accompany the text, as do a few tables analyzing the chemical properties of water. The pamphlet also includes brief descriptions of Yellowstone and other resorts further west, and an advertisement for the Chicago and Northwestern Railway itself. (English) (search this work)

A summer in the wilderness; embracing a canoe voyage up the Mississippi and around Lake Superior. By Charles Lanman.
Charles Lanman (1819-1895) was a Michigan-born landscape painter, sportsman, and writer who studied under Asher Durand and published several books about his journeys through the wilderness and newly developing areas of the northern Midwest and Canada. This book shares highlights of his 1846 trip by steamship and canoe north from St. Louis to Rock Island, Nauvoo, Prairie du Chien and onward to Lake Pepin and the mouth of the St. Peter's (Minnesota) River. Lanman continued to Itasca and Elk Lake, which he considered to be the actual headwaters of the Mississippi, by way of Lake Winnipeg and Cedar Lake, eventually reaching Lake Superior after traveling along the St. Louis River to Fond du Lac. Lanman writes about nature from a romantic perspective, recreating woodland scenes with plunging cataracts, picturesque bluffs, and sparkling waters. He spends considerable time describing various Native American peoples and passes on some legends associated with the places he visited. As an artist, he was deeply impressed with Seth Eastman whom he met at Fort Snelling. He also devotes a few introductory pages to the artistic and architectural treasure of St. Louis, where his journey began. The last chapter is a nostalgic recollection of the author's childhood in an arcadian Michigan he sees receding into distant memory. (English) (search this work)

Summer on the Lakes, in 1843. By S.M. Fuller.
Sarah Margaret Fuller Ossoli (1810-1850), better known as Margaret Fuller, was a writer, editor, translator, early feminist thinker, critic, and social reformer who was associated with the Transcendentalist movement in New England. This is her introspective account of a trip to the Great Lakes region in 1843. Organized as a series of travel episodes interspersed with literary and social commentary, the work displays a style common to the portfolios, sketch books, and commonplace books kept by educated nineteenth-century women. In addition to her own thoughts about natural landscapes and human encounters, Fuller includes stories, legends, allegorical dialogues, poems, and excerpts from the works of other authors. When she traveled to the Midwest, Fuller was exhausted by her work as editor of the Dial, the Transcendentalist journal she edited with Ralph Waldo Emerson. Accompanied during part of the journey by her friends James Clarke and Sarah Clarke, who created the book's etchings, Fuller traveled by train, steamboat, carriage, and on foot in a circle from Niagara Falls north to Mackinac Island and Sault Ste. Marie, west to Milwaukee, south to Pawpaw, Illinois, and back to Buffalo. Fuller discusses Chicago in some detail, and laments the unjust treatment of Native Americans. She comments on the difficulties of pioneer life for women and on the degradation of the region's beautiful and exhilarating natural environment. She speaks favorably about the British-American agrarian visionary, Morris Birbeck, and includes a short story about an old school friend, Mariana, who dies because her active mind cannot adapt to the restrictive codes of behavior prescribed for the era's elite women. (English) (search this work)

Tales of Hofman.
This is a collection of semi-autobiographical vignettes about Jewish life in St. Paul, Minnesota. The scenes take place in the old West Side, which was St. Paul's major Jewish neighborhood during the first half of the twentieth century. Many chapters deal with the tensions and changes in lifestyle between generations. There are Yiddish-speaking mothers who live for their children only to have them move elsewhere around the country or relocate to more affluent neighborhood such as Highland Park, where the intertwined folkways, institutions, and friendships of the old immigrant community seem all but invisible. The older men are portrayed as deeply involved with religious rituals and with providing for their families. In many cases, Hoffman's narratives employ fictional devices to convey moral insights about the value systems of both young and old. (English) (search this work)

Then came May.
This is the nostalgic reminiscence of a childhood lived on a homestead near Petoskey, in northern Michigan, in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Georgia Hufford's parents, Canadians of Scots ancestry, emigrated with their growing family to Grand Rapids at the close of the Civil War. When her father and a brother contracted malaria, the family moved in search of a healthier environment to the promising port community of Petoskey on Little Traverse Bay. The book is arranged topically rather than chronologically, describing the rounds of daily life on a relatively self-sufficient farm. Hufford recalls farm and household tasks such as sugaring, fishing, cleaning house, and baking, as well as encounters with now-rare or vanished wildlife, such as the large flocks of passenger pigeons that used to pass through the area. She also talks about logging, early commercial furniture-making, fighting forest fires and other activities particular to the North Woods. Hufford also chronicles her occupational life as a young single woman in some detail. She teaches, works in local government, serves as a postmistress, and involves herself in retailing. Family verse and quotes from Robert Burns, Ella Wheeler Wilcox and other popular poets appear throughout. (English) (search this work)

Thirty years a slave. From bondage to freedom. The institution of slavery as seen on the plantation and in the home of the planter. Autobiography of Louis Hughes.
Louis Hughes was born in Virginia (1832), but was sold (1844) in the Richmond slave market to a cotton planter and his wife who lived on the Mississippi River. Later, he traveled with them to their new home in Memphis, Tennessee, and spent time during the Civil War in Alabama. Hughes made five attempts to escape, alone and with his wife and friends, but he and his wife succeeded in finding freedom only after Emancipation. Eventually, after reuniting with several members of their family and seeking a livelihood in various Southern, Midwestern and Canadian cities (Memphis, Cincinnati, Hamilton, Windsor, Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland), they settled in Milwaukee, where Hughes became a nurse, drawing on skills he had developed while treating the illnesses of his fellow slaves. Thirty Years a Slave provides a great deal of information about the complex relationships between slaves and masters, along with graphic accounts of the physical abuse slaves endured, and details about slave markets, slave religion, and the organization of plantation work. Hughes also remembers the desire for learning he felt when he was a slave and recalls the varied tasks he performed in his masters' households. (English) (search this work)

Thirty years in the itinerancy.
These memoirs, by Wesson George Miller, deal mainly with the early history of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Wisconsin. Miller was born in upstate New York in 1822 and later emigrated with his family to Waupun, Wisconsin. Because he already had teaching experience as a Methodist, he was soon persuaded to take temporary charge of the Brothertown Indian Mission on the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago. Later, he was appointed pastor to Green Lake Mission (near Ripon), Watertown, Spring Street Station (Milwaukee), and Fond du Lac, eventually returning to Spring Street, Fond du Lac, and Ripon. He discusses Methodist Conferences in detail, providing insight into contentious issues such as slavery, and taking a strong position in support of camp-meetings. Miller also provides information about Lawrence College (Appleton, Wisconsin), major epidemics, and Native American singing traditions. (English) (search this work)

A tour from the city of New-York to Detroit, in the Michigan territory, made between the 2nd of May and the 22nd of September, 1818.
In a series of letters, William Darby (1775-1854), who describes himself as a member of the New-York Historical Society, chronicles his journey up the Hudson, across New York to Ogdensburg and Sackett's Harbor (on Lake Ontario), and on to Buffalo and Detroit. Along the way, he spends time in Rhinebeck, Utica, Geneva, Niagara Falls, and other points of scenic or economic interest. He also discusses the St. Lawrence River and its commercial traffic at length, analyzing development on both shores and comparing the United States's and Canada's growth. Darby made the trip across Lake Erie from Buffalo to Detroit on the schooner Zephyr, stopping at such towns as Dunkirk, Cleveland, and Sandusky. His return trip to New York took him back along the American shore of Lake Erie to Buffalo and Albany (by way of Auburn, the Finger Lakes, and Schenectady). Appended to these letters are "general remarks" (which include excerpts of a speech by Governor Clinton to the New York State Legislature), a description of Ballston Spa, a letter Darby received about the not-yet-opened Erie Canal, and long excerpts from Bouchette's Canada. Darby tells us primarily about the geology and natural features of the areas he visits as well as their current and future economic prospects. He provides some demographic information and occasionally mentions local accommodations. The book is accompanied by two colored maps, one of which details the route he took for his journey. (English) (search this work)

Tracks and trails; or, Incidents in the life of a Minnesota territorial pioneer.
Tracks and Trails presents incidents in the life of a Minnesota pioneer and touches on many facets of frontier life in the second half of the nineteenth century. It depicts the settlers' contact and conflict with the Sioux and Chippewas, two Native tribes living on the east and west banks of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, from an ethnocentric perspective typical of white views at that time. Born in Illinois in 1848, Nathan Dally moved to Minnesota with his family at the age of eight and lived in the North Star state for the next seventy-two years. He details the family's 500-mile journey from Putnam, Illinois, to Clearwater Lake (Stearns County), Minnesota, in 1856. Along the way, Dally first saw the abundance of the western territories: piles of triangular lead bars, freshly cast from the smelters, lying along mining sites, and swarms of black bass swimming undisturbed in the lakes. The rest of the book describes life after settlement in the new land. There are sketches of the rich natural resources in and around Clearwater Lake, and descriptions of the encounters between whites and Native Americans, which were filled with suspicion and mistrust on both sides and sometimes ended in bloodshed. There were also intertribal clashes between the Sioux and Chippewa peoples. Dally blends his accounts of confrontations between Indian tribes and between whites and Native Americans with vivid descriptions of frontier life. He recalls the living conditions in white settlements, the appearance and internal arrangements of Indian dwellings, the division of labor by gender within the Indian population, the Native peoples' reverence for nature, and even the way they smoked a pipe whose stem was "almost two feet" long. (English) (search this work)

Trails of a paintbrush, by Nicholas R. Brewer.
This is the autobiography of a successful nineteenth-century Minnesotan artist raised on a pioneer farm along the Root River near High Forest (Olmstead County) in southeastern Minnesota. Nicholas Brewer displayed early artistic talent and left home for St. Paul at eighteen in search of training as a painter. Supporting himself through odd jobs and the sale of crayon portraiture, he eventually studied under Dwight Tryon in New York and held an exhibit at the National Academy there. Brewer's life story describes a tension between his desire to support his wife and children in Minnesota and his need to live in a large city in order to develop a financially viable career. Eventually, Brewer resolved this dilemma by arranging exhibits of his works which were sponsored by local art leagues throughout the burgeoning cities of the South and Midwest. This not only enhanced his reputation but gave him an expanding network of clients and patrons. Trails of a Paintbrush illuminates the process by which cultural institutions and patronage spread across America, and its author also shares many of his own insights into the art world of late nineteenth-century America. (English) (search this work)

Trials of a lawyer. Autobiography by James Manahan.
This memoir deals primarily with the professional and political life of a progressive Minnesota lawyer and congressman, James Manahan (1866-1932). Manahan was born to Irish pioneer parents in Chatfield and became the first man to graduate with a bachelor of law degree from the University of Minnesota. Except for ten youthful years in Lincoln, Nebraska, where he served as executor for the estate of the railroad entrepreneur John Fitzgerald, Manahan built a career in his home state defending the interests of farmers, consumers, and crusaders against the power and political influence of railroads, the Pullman corporation, and other large transportation concerns. The book discusses the Fenians, the Non-Partisan League, the farm cooperative movement, grassroots campaign strategies, and political figures such as Robert La Follette, John P. Altgeld, and William Jennings Bryan. Long excerpts and paraphrases of court arguments are included in the text. (English) (search this work)

Trouting on the Brule River.
Trouting on the Brule River is a literary account of genteel sportsmen's fishing expeditions during the summers of 1875 and 1877. Originally published in the Chicago Sunday Times and the Chicago Sunday Tribune, the book's chapters tell how a group of Chicago lawyers traveled by rail, foot and canoe to destinations along the Menominee, Michigami, and Brule Rivers in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The author describes the delights of fly-fishing in lyrical detail, along with bobbing for pike, shooting rapids, deer and duck hunting, and encounters with birds and animals. He romanticizes the expedition's Indian guides, believing that they lived in a state of nature. (English) (search this work)

A true description of the Lake Superior country ... with Bayfield's chart (showing the boundary line as established by joint commission) also a minute account of the copper mines and working companies ... containing a concise mode of assaying, treating, smelting, and refining copper ores. By John R. St. John.
This descriptive discussion of the Lake Superior country emphasizes geographical features and is directed primarily towards those interested in locating and exploiting the region's mineral deposits of copper and iron. Nevertheless, it is written as a travel narrative, with the author progressing along the shoreline areas, noting their scenic beauties and providing anecdotes and opinions along the way. The reader is told what to wear and what transportation facilities and amenities will be found en route. The book lists mining companies already functioning in the area and gives information about their management and the nature of their operations. Among other information, there is also a glossary of mining terms, a list of grantees, a short vocabulary of French and local Indian words, and a list of steamship and sailing vessels. (English) (search this work)

The unfinished autobiography of Henry Hastings Sibley, together with a selection of hitherto unpublished leters from the thirties, edited by Theodore C. Blegen.
This account focuses on the fur trade experiences of Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891), better known as commander of the military forces suppressing the Sioux [Dakota] uprisings of 1862 and 1863, and, in 1858, Minnesota's first governor. Sibley was born in Detroit to a prominent family of New England ancestry but spurned a settled life in that community for a more adventurous career, including a stint as a clerk for John Jacob Astor, and later as the American Fur Company's agent in trading with the Sioux [Dakota]. He began this reminiscence in 1883, at the age of 73, and seems to have added to it as late as 1886. The events he writes about, however, do not extend beyond 1835. Sibley shares his insights about voyageurs, native Americans, and life in military forts and trading settlements, although little of this material relates specifically to Minnesota. There is some commentary on settlements at Mackinac, Milwaukee, St. Peter's (Mendota), and Chicago, as well as the city of Detroit, where cholera reached epidemic proportions in the first half of the nineteenth century. The book also contains eleven letters from Sibley to Ramsay Crooks, agent and eventual president of the American Fur Company. (English) (search this work)

The Vermontville colony, its genesis and history, with personal sketches of the colonists.
This is a detailed history of the founding and development of Vermontville, Michigan. Under the leadership of a Congregational minister named Sylvester Cochrane, a group of men from Bennington, Poultney, Benson, Orwell and other Vermont communities signed a compact pledging to honor the Gospel and the Sabbath, to provide jointly for certain community services, and to pool their money to purchase land "in the western country." Arriving in Michigan's Thornapple River Valley in 1836, the colony gave each member a farm lot of 160 acres and a village lot of ten acres to develop with his family. A church, a school and an academy were also part of the master plan from the outset. Vermontville's economic growth exemplified that of many small Michigan towns. At first, the settlers were heavily dependent on the Indians for food. In time, they produced enough to feed themselves and to exchange for the other goods and services they needed. A doctor arrived; a store opened; eventually Vermontville had its own weekly newspaper. Attracted initially by the projected Clinton and Kalamazoo canal, the residents found themselves fully integrated with other Michigan communities as railroad routes proliferated throughout the region. Besides its account of major local events, this work offers thumbnail sketches of Vermontville's founding citizens. (English) (search this work)

Wau-bun, the early day in the Northwest. by Mrs. John H. Kinzie.
This book recounts the experiences of a young, genteel wife adjusting to the military life and frontier conditions of life at Fort Winnebago, Wisconsin, in the early 1830s. She describes her perilous journeys back and forth to the early settlement of Chicago, her complex cultural encounters with a diverse frontier society, and her determination to instill her own standards of civilized behavior and Christian observance. There is abundant information on the customs, folklore, economic practices, life-cycle events, medical treatments, diet, warfare, environmental responses, social hierarchies, and gender roles of the different groups of people that Kinzie comes to know best. She also provides detailed portraits of individual native Americans, voyageurs, fur traders, missionaries, pioneers, soldiers, and African Americans who impressed her positively or negatively. As pieces of local and family history, Kinzie retells stories of settlers captured by Indians; battle scenes from the wars with the British, the Sioux (Dakota) and other native Americans; and the fall of Fort Dearborn. (English) (search this work)

With pen and pencil on the frontier in 1851; the diary and sketches of Frank Blackwell Mayer.
Frank B. Mayer, a Baltimore artist, journeyed to Traverse de Sioux and Mendota on the Minnesota frontier in 1851 to record meetings between United States officials and Indian tribes who were ceding title to much of Southern Minnesota and portions of Iowa and Dakota. This volume contains the journal entries and sketches Mayer made on his travels. They provide a descriptive and visual record of Native American life as he saw it, particularly among the Sioux. Mayer includes sketches of lacrosse, child rearing practices, smoking the peace pipe, buffalo dancers, teepees and summer lodges, and portraits of prominent chieftains. There are also sketches of voyageurs and a variety of artifacts and military personalities connected with this chapter of Minnesota history. The materials in this book have been selected from larger holdings at the Newberry Library and do not illustrate the actual treaty signings. Mayer himself acquired a distinguished reputation as an artist and writer. Several of his paintings adorn the Maryland statehouse, and he wrote a number of illustrated articles for Harper's and Scribner's magazines. (English) (search this work)

A woman's life-work: labors and experiences of Laura S. Haviland.
Canadian-born Laura Haviland (1808-1898) was an evangelically-minded Quaker and later (for a time) a Wesleyan Methodist, active in education and social justice issues throughout her life. A Woman's Life Work is, above all, a religious autobiography chronicling her conversion experience and her desire to express faith through benevolent social action. She was brought up in New York State but moved to Raisin, Lenawee County, Michigan, following her marriage at sixteen. In 1837, influenced by the example of Oberlin College, she and her husband founded the Raisin Institute, an academy open to "all of good moral character" regardless of race. After her husband's death, she became increasingly involved with the underground railroad, traveling frequently to the South and enacting elaborate plans to help slaves escape. When the Civil War broke out, she organized relief efforts for wounded or imprisoned soldiers as well as for former slaves, refugees, and those who were illegally still held in bondage, working with the Freedman's Relief Association and the American Missionary Association, with which she established an orphanage primarily devoted to black children. Although she lectured, lobbied, and ministered, Haviland's forte was grassroots activism--organizing, protesting, lobbying, or demonstrating against the specific injustices she encountered. Her book is filled with individual stories of black-white relationships under slavery and includes a slave narrative from a man called "Uncle Philip," transcribed in his own words. Haviland writes graphic descriptions of the punishments meted out to slaves and gives the reader eyewitness accounts of war-time prisons, hospitals, soup kitchens and refugee camps. She provides extensive information about the subtle relationships between the Society of Friends and evangelical Christianity. Though Haviland became a Wesleyan Methodist for the most active period of her life, she returned to her Quaker origins shortly before her death. (English) (search this work)

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